Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas
Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, also: Bernardo Sandoval Rojas ( born April 20, 1546 Aranda de Duero, † December 7, 1618 ) was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Toledo from 1599 to 1618.
Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas came from the Spanish nobility. Both parents have held functions at the court of Charles V and Philip II. However, the family was not wealthy. As a posthumous son, he opted for the ecclesiastical career. He was supported by his uncle Cristóbal de Rojas y Sandoval, who was successively Bishop of several influential Spanish dioceses. Like his uncle, he was appointed in 1586 by the Spanish king to the bishop. When he tried a Christian renewal within the meaning of Council of Trent in his dioceses, he felt but at the same time his family so committed that he in turn promoted several nephews. So sharp from today's perspective, such nepotism is condemned, but it was common in the early modern period. Relationship committed by former understanding, to take care of the material welfare and the advancement of less prosperous relatives.
According to this understanding then also Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas came to enjoy the patronage system. When his distant nephew of Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas in the rank of an influential Minister under King Philip III. climb, this ensured that his uncle was in 1599 appointed cardinal. Since the appointment was not initiated by the Pope, but by the king, you can call Bernardo Kronkardinal. He was the first Spaniard, who was appointed in this way. Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas was therefore always more committed to the Spanish royal court as the Curia during his Kardinalats. Rome, he never visited.