Bid ʿ a بدعة bid'a, DMG bid ʿ a is " innovation " in Islamic theology and jurisprudence and is therefore contrary to the Sunnah. Basically, every innovation is initially refused, if it is not in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
The Islamic Qur'an exegesis ( Tafseer ) characterizes Judaism and Christianity (al- Yahudiya / al - naṣrāniya ) also as bid ʿ a, as they have been altered over the centuries. This state of mind comes in the interpretation of Sura 2, verse 42 already in the oldest Koranexegeten expressed:
"And do not obscure the truth with lies and deceit, and does not hide it, while her ( but them) know! "
For the " truth " (al- Haqq ) that Islam is, or - as an interpretation variant - the person of Muhammad. " Lies and deception " (al- baatil - " what is void " ), however, stand for Judaism and Christianity, which had been corrupted and are therefore deemed to bid ʿ a. Marked by the Islamic theology importance of non-Islamic monotheistic religions has to modernity in full force and effect.
In Sura 3, verse 78 it says:
" And some of them twist the words of the scriptures (?), So you think it (that is what they say ) come from the Scriptures, while (in reality ) does not come from it, and say it came from God, while (in reality ) is not from him. So they say to God knowingly made a lie. "
In theology bid ʿ a is heresy; any doctrine that does not conform to Islamic principles, such as the denial of God's attributes, the denial of the vision of God on the Day of Resurrection, and the like is heresy.
So you let the Prophet Muhammad in a hadith speak as follows:
" Verily, the truest Mitt healing ( Asdaq al - Hadith) is the book of Allah, the best line is the line of Muhammad, the worst of things are the innovations, every innovation is heresy, and every heresy is error, and every error leads to hell. "
The discussion about what what is considered a good " innovation " and a bad " innovation " - and thus as heresy - applies to is old. In addition to the hadiths that have been attributed to either Mohammed or his companions, Fonts, the Bid ʿ a had on the subject already emerged in the late 9th century. A work of the Andalusian Abu Bakr al - Ṭurṭūšī († 1126 in Alexandria ) from Tortosa is published under the title El libro de las y las innovaciones the newsletter in Spanish translation.
The good bid ʿ a
In addition to the reprehensible innovation, there is also the concept of good and laudable or allowable innovation (bid ʿ a Hasana, bid ʿ a Mahmuda, bid ʿ a mubāḥa ). So ash- Shafi ʿ ī is quoted as saying: " An innovation that contradicts the Quran, a Sunnah a Athar or the consensus, is a heretical innovation. But when something new is introduced, which in itself is not bad and the above-mentioned authorities of the religious life does not contradict, this is a laudable, not reprehensible innovation. "
Especially in the Hanafi madhhab, who knows the legal instrument of istiḥsān ( Gutdünkens ), one reached into the early modern period you back to the concept of allowed and good innovation. For example, the Hanafit ʿ defended Alī al - Qari (d. 1606), the existing in his time in Mecca organizational form of the ritual prayer, in which the members of the different Sunni schools of law were praying in separate groups one after the other or side by side, against critics as a " good innovation " (bid ʿ a Hasana ) and referred in this connection to the saying of the Prophet's companions ʿ Abd Allāh ibn Mas ʿ ūd: " What the Muslims consider to be good, even if God is good " ( mā Ra'a -hu l - muslimun ḥasanan fa - huwa ʿ inda llahi ḥasanun ).