Block (periodic table)
As a block in the periodic table chemical elements according to the highest-energy atomic orbitals of their electron shells are summarized. A block combines several groups of the periodic table together.
We distinguish the following blocks:
- S- Block: compared to the previous element is added to an electron in an s orbital. This block include hydrogen, helium, and the elements of the 1st and 2nd main group (alkaline metals and alkaline earth metals ).
- P- Block: compared to the previous element is an electron added in a p- orbital. For this block to all other main group elements, ie earth metals, carbon group, nitrogen group, chalcogens, halogens and noble gases.
- D-block: compared to the previous element is an electron in a d orbital added. These electrons are not located in the outermost shell, but one among them (see electron configuration, Aufbau principle ). Since these elements only one or (usually) have two outer electrons, they show a similar chemical behavior. For this block include all subgroup elements.
- F-block: compared to the previous element is added to an electron in an f orbital. These electrons are not located in the outermost shell, but in the third outermost. The chemical similarity in this block is therefore even more pronounced than in the d-block. For f-block lanthanides and actinides include.
- G - block ( in the extended periodic table, purely hypothetical ): compared to the previous element is an electron in a g - orbital added. The G- block is a portion of the Superactinoide.