Bolesław I the Tall

Boleslaw I ( also: Boleslaw the Tall; Boleslaw I of Silesia, Polish: Bolesław I. Wysoki; * 1127, † December 18, 1201 ) was Duke of Silesia, based in Wroclaw.

Origin and family

Boleslaw came from the Polish Piast dynasty. His father Wladyslaw II " the displaced " († 1159 ) was the founder of the line of the Silesian Piast dynasty. Boleslaw's mother was Agnes, daughter of the Austrian Margrave Leopold III. Boleslaw's brothers were:

  • Mieszko I († 1211 ), Duke of Silesia, from 1202 Duke of Opole
  • Conrad I ( † after 1178 ), Duke of Silesia
  • Boleslaw's sister Richeza was married to King Alfonso VII of Castile since 1152.

1163 married Boleslaw Wenzlawa ( Zvinislava / Anastasia ) of Kiev. This marriage came:

  • Jaroslaw († 1201), Duke of Opole, from 1198 Bishop of Breslau.

After Wenzlawas death, Boleslaw married to Adelheid, daughter of the Count Palatine Berengar of Sulzbach. This marriage produced four sons and two daughters, including:

  • Henry I († 1238 ), Duke of Silesia and Duke of Poland
  • Adelheid, married to Margrave Diepoldsberg III. of Moravia


Boleslaw was expelled in 1146 along with his parents and his brother Mieszko by his uncle Bolesław Kraushaar († 1173 ). After the family on the Roman-German King Konrad III court. Recording was made, Boleslaw spent his youth on the imperial Palatinate Altenburg in Thuringia. Along with King Conrad III. Boleslaw 1147 took part in the Second Crusade. 1154/1155 and 1158/1162 he accompanied the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa on his Italian expeditions.

Only four years after the death of her father were allowed to return to Silesia I. 1163 Boleslaw and Mieszko with Emperor Frederick, which had to issue them their uncle Duke Bolesław IV " Kraushaar ". She received her area within the Polish Senioratsverfassung as independent duchy, and were obliged to pay tribute to the emperor. Your dominion, which included Central and Lower Silesia and the Opole region, they ruled first together. 1172 Boleslaw was exiled again by his uncle Boleslaw Kraushaar, but returned in 1173 back again with the help of the emperor Barbarossa.

After it came to a dispute between the brothers, the country was divided. Boleslaw received funds and Lower Silesia with the areas of Legnica, Wroclaw and Opole. He ruled the country Glogau presumably as guardian of his minor brother Konrad. Mieszko was the Upper Silesian areas of Ratibor and Teschen. As Boleslaw wanted to win the Cracow throne as head of the older Piast dynasty, he participated in 1177 in the conspiracy against the then senior Mieszko III. " The old man ", which is why he was expelled from it. Only with the help of the new senior Duke Casimir the Just, Boleslaw was able to return. Mieszko obtained of Kasimir the areas of Bytom, Auschwitz, Zator, Sewerien and Pless.

After Boleslaw his son Henry had intended for the sole heir revolted Jaroslaw, son of Boleslaw's first marriage, to his father. Together with his uncle Mieszko Jaroslaw fought against his father, who eventually 1180 for lifetime zuwies him the Opole region as a duchy. In return, Jaroslaw had to undertake to enter into holy orders. After Yaroslav's death on March 22, 1201, the Duchy of Opole was according to contract back to Boleslaw. As Boleslaw his son Yaroslav followed in death already on 18 December of the same year, conquered his brother Mieszko few months later, the Opole region, linking it to life with his territory.

During his reign Boleslaw began for the development of the land and promoted the colonization of the country with German settlers. It may be 17- year stay have played a role in exile on the imperial Palatinate in Altenburg. 1175 he exhibited the foundation charter for the monastery Leubus, which had been inhabited as early as 1163 by the Cistercian order from Pforta in Saxony. He is alleged to have previously sold to with papal approval Polish Benedictines from Leubus. With the consent of Boleslaw Breslauer Vincent pin on the Elbing was transferred to the Premonstratensian. He was buried in the monastery Leubus.