Bolton is a town in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester in England in the valley of the River Croal. Bolton belonged until 1974 to the County of Lancashire; since it is the administrative headquarters of the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. The city had about 139,000 inhabitants in 2001.
The history of Bolton dates back to the Bronze Age. The first documentary evidence dates back to the year 1067 and recorded a Manor of Bolton in Bolton -le- Moors. Bolton and the surrounding area belonged after the invasion of the Normans in 1066 to the Crown. Later, the land between the rivers Mersey and Ribble west of Manchester was given by William the Conqueror a Baron Roger de Poictou. Later, it came back to the Crown, then to Ranulf de Briscasar, 3rd Earl of Chester and then to Roger de Maresy. Most families who held the estate of Bolton, belonged to the house of the Earl of Derby.
The place was in 1261 by Henry III. the royal charter, with its market rights were awarded. Even before Bolton had been raised by William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby at a Borough, coupled with the right to hold a market.
1337 to let Flemish weavers settled in Bolton and built spinners, weavers and a wooden shoe production. It developed over time a textile industry; Cotton was first processed in 1641. The invention of spinning machines such as the spinning jenny ( by James Hargreaves 1761 ) and the Spinning Mule by the Bolton -born Samuel Crompton 1779 have allowed a significant qualitative and quantitative increase of production. Samuel Crompton dedicated a statue built in 1862 in Bolton. The first mechanical spinning mill was put into operation in Bolton in 1780.
1516 still existing private school Bolton School was founded.
In the 17th century Bolton was a center of Puritanism and the English Civil War, a bastion of parliamentarians, surrounded by the royalists related areas. On May 28, 1644 Bolton was attacked by a 10,000 -strong army of Rupert of the Rhine under the command of the Earl of Derby. 1,500 people were killed, 700 were captured. This event is known as the Bolton Massacre.
1838 Places Little Bolton and Great Bolton were united on both sides of the River Croal. Bolton had about 47,000 inhabitants at that time. In the same year Queen Victoria Bolton granted the status of a Borough. Already on 29 May 1828, the Bolton and Manchester Railway took on their railway operations; on July 1, 1828 follow the Bolton to Leigh Railway, which was operated by George and Robert Stephenson. At this time settled in Bolton numerous suppliers for the British coal mines to; next were other industries such as the manufacture of paper.
1899, an electric tram was put into operation, which was replaced by buses in 1928. In 1929 there were 247 cotton mills in Bolton, in the 1950s there were still 103 1964 even 34, 1979, only 8
The football club Bolton Wanderers play in the Football League Championship.
Since 2009 will be held in and around Bolton in August each year the Ironman UK. In this triathlon over the Ironman distance is 3.86 km swim, 180.2 km cycling and cope 42.195 km running for the athletes.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Thomas Cole, American landscape painter ( born 1 February 1801 in Bolton † February 11, 1848 Catskills, NY)
- Thomas Moran, American painter, called Tom Yellowstone Moran (* February 12, 1837 Bolton, † August 25, 1926 Santa Barbara, California)
- David Jack, Football Player
- Amir Khan Boxer
- Robert Whitehead, designer of the first self-propelled torpedoes
- Danny Jones, lead singer and guitarist of the British band McFly
- Andrew Oldcorn, professional golfer
- Nat Lofthouse, football player