The term Borough ( German municipality, district) called an administrative unit in different states.
The concept of the division of the territory into boroughs is originally from England. The term comes from the Borough burh word that means in the Old English language " fortified place " (see Castle ).
The prize awarded by the Borough status often is reflected primarily in southern England in the ending bury in place names contrary; borough in the Midlands in the ending. In Scotland, the name was used instead burgh.
The ending bury is also found in the U.S. New England states; the south and west of the United States the ending burg contrast, is widespread. Commonly, the ending is brough (pronounced ' bruh ').
In England are spoken both borough and burgh [ bʌɹə ]. In Scotland both words [ bɜ ː ɹə ] are pronounced. In the United States, is the debate borough [ bʌɹoʊ ] or [ bɜ ɹoʊ ː ], for pittsburgh [ bɝ ː g] or [ bʌɹoʊ ].
Boroughs were originally formed to provide a place to own rights against the local land lord. The boroughs were typically managed by a Council, which gave its members themselves. Rare boroughs were managed by a single person.
Status of the borough was granted a place by a royal charter ( Royal Charter ). Whether, however, the Borough could also send a representative in the Parliament, was even chosen by the House of Commons, the British House of Commons. In many cases, the mayors or councils of boroughs were not represented in Parliament; conversely, there were representatives in Parliament who were not members of the administration of a borough.
The Reform Act 1832 lost many boroughs that were previously over-represented (some of them, the so-called rotten boroughs, were virtually uninhabited ), their representation in parliament. The debate on the reform showed that there were many different kinds of management at the local level. A Royal Commission was appointed, and as a result of their work, the local government in 1835 uniformly regulated. All councils had to be chosen in the future and were defined rights. At the same time a process has been set up by a place at the Parliament could file a petition to obtain the status of a Borough.
1888, the existing Borouhgs were divided into two different types: the County Boroughs were given powers to undertake counties ( counties ) was comparable to those; In contrast, given the municipal boroughs only the competencies of a municipality. Small towns were made in 1894 to urban districts that had not unlike the boroughs the right to elect a mayor.
The traditional distinction between counties and boroughs in 1974 terminated by the counties were divided into districts. Urbanized districts usually have the status of a Borough. See also List of Districts in England.
This change was thus reversed in the 1990s, in part, that some districts the status of a Unitary Authority was awarded, which has the same powers as a county. Unitary Authority's urbanized all have the status of a Borough.
Today the Metropolitan Boroughs in boroughs ( metropolitan districts) and non- metropolitan boroughs ( unitary authorities or districts ) are divided. The boroughs of Greater London, with the exception of the City of London, London Boroughs. See also Administrative divisions of England.
In the districts of New York City are boroughs. They are also counties of the State of New York:
- The Bronx ( Bronx County)
- Brooklyn (Kings County)
- Manhattan (New York County)
- Queens ( Queens County)
- Staten Iceland (Richmond County)
The American state of Alaska is also divided into boroughs; they correspond to counties in other states. However, large parts of Alaska belong to any Borough; for statistical purposes here census areas were formed, see List of boroughs and census areas in Alaska
A self-governing city ( City ) is in some U.S. states, such as Pennsylvania, borough called, occasionally boro. In some countries several boroughs are combined to form a township.
In Quebec, the term borough used as an English translation of the French arrondissement.
In New Zealand, the term borough [ bʌɹə ] was used for self-governing cities that did not have the status of a City earlier.