Brake, Lower Saxony
Brake ( Low German Braak ) is the county town of the district Weser march in Lower Saxony. The city belongs to the region Oldenburger Land, and since 2005 of the Metropolitan Region Bremen / Oldenburg.
- 2.1 Middle Ages
- 2.2 17th to 19th century
- 2.3 The modern age
- 2.4 Historical Press
- 2.5 Amalgamations
- 2.6 spin-offs
- 2.7 Population development
- 3.1 City Council
- 3.2 Mayor
- 3.3 Coat of Arms
- 3.4 Town twinning
- 5.1 Education 5.1.1 Education facilities
- 5.3.1 Fire Department
- 5.6.1 Rail transport
- 5.6.2 Road Traffic
- 5.6.3 Ship and Ferry
- 5.6.4 bicycle paths in Brake
- 6.1 Sons and daughters of the town
- 6.2 connected with Brake
Brake is located in the center of the city quadrangle Bremerhaven, Bremen, Oldenburg and Wilhelmshaven directly on the western shore of the sea depths lower Weser. In the north Brake borders the municipality of Urban land, on the south by the city Elsfleth and to the west by the municipality Ovelgönne. The city is surrounded by flat marshland, which is mainly used as grassland.
Brake consists of twelve districts, which are divided as follows:
- Schmalenfleth, Golzwarden and Boitwarden ( in the north)
- Harrierwurp, Hammelwarder outer dike, Norderfeld and Southshore field ( in the west)
- Fünfhausen, Kirchhammelwarden ( Hammelwarden ) and Käseburg ( in the south)
The first fishermen and farmers who settled isolated on the mounds at the Weser near Brake, got around 1100 growth, when the Archbishop of Bremen colonists called into the country, who made history as Stedinger. They built first coherent dikes from the Hunte mouth to Golzwarden. The villages Harrien and Hammelwarden emerged. From 1164 to 1511 four large storm surges flooded the area, which destroyed the dykes and Stedinger where thousands of people were killed.
Brake was first mentioned on 25 or May 30, 1384 in a document as a brake to Harghen ( Harrien ). The mention was made because of a large, not again einzudämmenden dike breach ( brackish ), which lay near the settlement Harrien.
Between new Jade Bay ( 1164, 1334 and 1362 ) and the Weser there were big island landscapes. North of Elsfleth a tributary of the Weser had formed, which met at Käseburg with another breakthrough and northwest of Harrien hit the Lockfleth. The southern piece of this Weser arm was Balgegraben, the northern Rönnel. As of 1512, the islands were dammed by the Oldenburg County; the first Rönnel, then followed in 1526 with the sections Lockfleth and Hammelwarden. Until 1531, these dikes were largely completed. On the three islands reclaimed from the first settlements of Braksiel, today Brake emerged.
17th to 19th century
After 1624 the Oldenburg Count Anton Günther planned a port, but it has not yet been built. A customs station for the Weser ships came to the chagrin of Bremen; but it was soon moved on to Elsfleth. Due to the silting of the river Weser Brake hub was but then for larger ocean-going vessels, which had here tranship smaller lighter their goods. The Light then drove to Bremen to delete the slaughters the goods permanently. Pack houses were built. Until well into the 18th century, the ships put on the south bank of Braker outside lows. To Duckdalben 1787 were driven in an open flow in the vicinity of today's quay, where the growing sailors could moor. Brake flourished. The continental blockade in the Napoleonic period 1806 to 1814 interrupted this positive trend only briefly.
From the 17th century Brake was used as a name for Location: Braksiel and Harrier Brake. 1731 the fishing house was built on what is now Mitteldeich road, it is the oldest surviving building in Brake. 1756 was the first documentary mention Brakes as a port. From 1814 Brake formed its own municipality, and there was the office Brake.
In the 19th century Brake but became an important location for the shipping. From 1817 to 1833 Brake has been run by the steamship The Weser in scheduled service.
On February 4, 1825 storm surge devastated the city. The reconstruction was completed in 1830. About 500 Bremer ships were loaded in Brake in these five years. With the founding of Bremerhaven in 1827 ended this boom.
1835 Brake was declared a free port in 1842 and trading center for the cattle export to England. After 1850, the newly formed North German Lloyd shifted the Umschlagestandort to Nordenham. The optical telegraph line Bremen- Bremerhaven to relay messages were ship out 1846 Brake. From 1848 to 1852 Brake was the home port of the German imperial fleet. After the failure of the revolution and the establishment of the old Bundestag, the dissolution of the State fleet was decided on April 2, 1852.
On May 1, 1856 Brake received its town charter class II. Addition of Brake today's neighborhoods Golzwarden and Hammelwarden with Fünfhausen -South, Kirchdorf ( Kirchhammelwarden ), cheese castle and the village communities on the Hammelwarder Moor and most Weser islands existed as separate municipalities.
In 1861, the completion of the Braker inland port. Around 600 ships called at Brake year. Without connection to the new, faster transport Railway, this number then decreased significantly in 1873, therefore it was connected to the railway network. 1892, the pier installations was built and in 1936 the Admiral Brommy barracks, which existed until 1997, when the navy of different locations separated. The released surface was then benefit from the extension of the port.
The modern age
The Maritime Museum of Oldenburg in Lower Weser Brake was inaugurated in 1960 " telegraph ". 1985 expanded the museum to the " Borgstede and Becker House ". In this the permanent exhibition was reopened after a half year renovation program in 2007. In 2008 came in Elsfleth with the "Villa Steenken " added a third building. The final opening of this museum building took place in 2010. Since 2009 is called the Maritime Museum " Maritime Museum Lower Weser ".
1972 saw the cultural and sports center with a municipal swimming pool and large sports hall. 1974 saw the start of construction of the county vocational school center.
From 1856 to 1939 Brake owned several independent newspapers.
In 1856 the Braker weekly. Intelligenzblatt for city and Butjadingerland founded and Office Elsfleth. It was renamed in 1858 in Braker indicator and weekly for the circle Ovelgönne and Office Elsfleth and was from 1865 to 1867 Braker Gazette.
1867 Braker indicator was renamed The Weserbote, on the March 24, 1939 had varying subtitles until the last edition of the paper. The political orientation of the newspaper was independent until 1900, after German national. The newspaper was like their predecessors of Lehmann printed in Brake. Expenditures from 1858 to 1938 are archived in the National Library of Oldenburg.
From November 1875 to June 1881 there was the Braker newspaper, which was printed by W. Auffurth, who was evidently her chief editor, in Brake. The political orientation was national liberal. Expenditures from 1876 to 1881 are located in the National Library of Oldenburg, the first issue in the newspaper museum of the city of Aachen.
From 1920 to 1925, exact dates are not known, gave the USPD, the SPD in Brake was the people newspaper out of the city and Butjadingerland, which was printed in Wilhelmshaven and initially a parallel edition of the East Frisian Volks -Zeitung in Emden. Some issues have been preserved in the National Library of Oldenburg.
In 1945 the short term, a newsletter of the American occupation forces, The Larkspur Leader. 110th Field Artillery Battalion, which was issued by the Special Service Battalion.
On March 1, 1974, a part of the neighboring municipality Ovelgönne ( district Golzwarden ) was incorporated with time more than 1000 inhabitants.
On March 1, 1974, the right of the Weser -lying areas of the city to the church Schwanewede ( Osterholz ) were assigned.
( at December 31 )
The City Council consists of 32 Brake Council women and councilors. This is the fixed number for a municipality with a population 15001-20000 inhabitants. The 32 council members are elected through local elections for five years. The current term of office began on 1 November 2011.
To vote in the local council is also the full-time mayor Roland Schiefke.
The last local elections on September 11, 2011 gave the following result:
The turnout in the local elections of 2011 was 51.1 %, slightly below the Lower Saxony average of 52.5 %. For comparison - in the previous local elections on 10 September 2006, the turnout was 53%.
In the city council election, the Social Democrats lost their absolute majority in the City Council Braker. Immediately after the election of former SPD chairman Ali Bataji location of his office stepped back and heard the Council since then as a non-party councilor. Since then, the SPD and the Greens and the CDU and FDP respectively form a Council Working Party. There are shifting majorities.
Mayor since November 1, 2006 Roland Schiefke, who was elected in a runoff election against Klaus Busch ( SPD) on 24 September 2006. So He replaced Brakes first mayor Uta Maron (independent). She was not only the first woman to hold this office, but also the first directly elected mayor ( in ) in the history of the city.
Coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city consists of three parts. The upper left part of the crest shows a half imperial eagle as belonging to Friesland. Emperor Barbarossa allowed the Friesen to lead the Eagle Warrior, because they had previously stood by him in military campaigns. The right upper half of the coat of arms shows the yellow fields with the red bar of the county of Oldenburg and the blue boxes with yellow crosses the county Delmenhorst. The lower half shows a sailing ship of the importance Brakes as a major port city on the lower Weser. The coat of arms was awarded to the city by the Grand Duke of Oldenburg on July 3, 1911. Previously, the city introduced no crest.
Since May 5, 2006 is twinned with the town of Zwiesel in the Bavarian Forest.
Brakes landmark is the 1846 built under the Oldenburg Grand Duke Paul Friedrich August Telegraph. The tower-like brick building was part of an established between Bremen and Bremerhaven optical telegraph line. The building since 1960 houses the Maritime Museum of Oldenburg Lower Weser. Using numerous exhibits, such as ship portraits and models, figureheads, marine charts, nautical instruments and travel souvenirs, the maritime history of Oldenburg Lower Weser space is documented on a total of seven floors. Wreckage of the Pamir remember their downfall.
In one located in the immediate vicinity of the telegraph merchant and shipowner house built in 1808, the second part of the collection of the Maritime Museum has been housed since 1985. It consists of a complete marine equipment store from the early 1900's, a sail-maker 's workshop, a historic Reedereikontor and the living room of Admiral Karl Rudolf Brommy, the commander of the first German fleet.
Further, the historical village churches in the districts Golzwarden and Kirchhammelwarden are worth seeing.
In 1990, the " Waiting ", a free-standing sculpture on the quay of sandstone of the artist Norbert Marten.
A landmark of the district Kirchhammelwarden is the water tower Kirchhammelwarden.
Economy and infrastructure
The situation Brakes at the deep waters of the river was more decisive for the historical development of the city and the competitiveness of its port.
The harbor serves as a transfer point for the traditional bulk materials grain, feed and fertilizer, sulfur, and the mass of cargo timber, paper, iron and steel. In addition, the handling of project cargo, general cargo and heavy cargo and containers constantly gaining importance and is a further focus.
Today, the Port of Braker ships with 11.9 m draft and a load capacity of up to 45,000 dwt can be started. In Tide - independent " inland port " ( dock port ) are LASH barges, motor coasters and barges for European Transport handled. By barge regularly extensive transport across the Weser or the Hunte and the coastal channel are carried out by and by Brake.
In 2003, some 5.27 million tons of goods were transhipped at sea. Together with the inland waterway, the envelope was 6.28 million tonnes. In 2009, only 4,676,593 tonnes were handled because of the impact of the economic crisis in the maritime sector, which are 19% less than last year. In the inland transport of the envelope fell by 42 %. In 2010 a recovery was evident: the traffic volume increased by 11 % t to 5.19 million. The result in 2011 was 5.34 million tonnes for the maritime sector by 3.1 % over the previous year. 2012 15 % were handled more goods by sea with around 6.1 million tonnes. The amount of Seegüterumschlags fell in 2013 at 5.7 million tonnes, 8 % lower than last year.
In 2004, the hitherto freely accessible seaport was completely fenced in the course of implementing the ISPS agreements. The North Road has been withdrawn by public transport and, as the site of the former Naval Academy, the port area struck. Access to the port area have since only those who know.
As of 2007, the port in the north was extended. By the spring of 2012 as two berths for larger ocean-going vessels originated ( Panamax class) at the new 450 -meter-long " Niedersachsenkai " and an extension of railways, warehouses and further. This enhances the infrastructure for the growing offshore supply traffic in the North Sea will be offered.
Major industrial companies and employers are a branch factory of the REHAU Group, the Port J. Müller, the medium-sized craft enterprises Barghorn, the forwarding LIT and the fat refinery Wilmar Edible Oils. In the inland port of the mineral grinder is SIBELCO ( formerly: North Cape Minerals and Mandt & Co). An early 2007, the construction was interested biorefinery drew their plans back.
Brake is a regional center and as the county seat of Wesermarsch seat of numerous authorities.
For about 50,000 inhabitants in the catchment area ( of a total of about 90,000 inhabitants in the district of Weser Marsch) Brake fulfilled various supply functions in the areas of trade, health care, social and cultural.
As an educational center of the Wesermarsch Brake has a large supply of primary schools and all secondary schools. The majority of these schools are summarized in the BBZ Brake ( vocational and educational center ).
Primary schools in Brake:
- Eichendorffschule, Catholic Primary School
- Primary school Boitwarden
- Theodor -Dirks Elementary School Golzwarden
- Primary school Harrien
- Primary school Kirchhammelwarden
Secondary schools in Brake:
- Elementary and secondary school Brake
- School Brake
Vocational schools for the district Weser march with the following types of schools
- Vocational high schools for business, health / social, technology
- Specialized schools, technology, business
- Schools social education, special education
- Vocational schools senior care, nursing assistant, social assistance, social work, economics, wood engineering, civil engineering, agriculture, metal engineering, electrical engineering, housekeeping and maintenance, catering, hairdressing equipment
- Career class
- Vocational preparation year
- Vocational school for various professions
Special schools in Brake:
- State-recognized educational institution days of life coaching Wesermarsch eV for people with disabilities
Other schools in Brake:
- KVHS Wesermarsch
- VHS Brake e.V.
- Music School Wesermarsch e.V.
Up to education reform in 2002 Brake possessed also two orientation levels ( OS and OS -Brake Brake North South).
The primary and junior high school (HRS ) consisted of two separate schools until 2010. In the future, it should in a comprehensive school (IGS ) are converted.
This is complemented by the nearby universities or colleges in Elsfleth, Bremen, Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven and Bremerhaven.
Thanks to its central position in Wesermarsch Brake has a wide range of clubs and sports activities.
For athletic purposes are an indoor and outdoor pool, outdoor sports grounds, tennis courts and an indoor tennis court available.
Brake in 2008 was the venue for the German championship in basketball. The SV Brake had also qualified for participation in the German Championships and won the 3rd place.
The first artificial turf in Germany is located on Bahnhofstrasse.
In the city there are the volunteers Brake focus firefighters harbor street in the Heinestrasse ( harbor road because it was founded in the harbor road in 1862 and until 1997 in the local firehouse their service work done ). Furthermore, there is the base fire departments Golzwarden in the city north and south Hammelwarden in the city.
The reason for three fire departments in the urban area is due to the high fire load that emanates from the port. The volunteer fire department Hammelwarden officially exists since more than 75 years, but even 125 years ago there was a fire creature in Hammelwarden. The fire department Golzwarden celebrated its 75th anniversary in 2008.
Brake has with the St. Bernard Hospital, a hospital in church-run, which has 110 beds. The end of 2009, the hospital was expanded to include a medical center. In addition, the hospital has a nurses' home, which was also completed in late 2009.
Furthermore, there are different practices in the city and the health center in the middle Weser march Hammelwarden district. Here various medical specialists are located next to the south pharmacy. The concept of the health center corresponds to the " house doctors of short distances".
Brake has long been an important location for the training of seamen of the navy. In the 1936 -built Admiral Brommy barracks sailors and officers were prepared for the technical service on board. After the founding of the Bundeswehr basic training for conscripts in the technical use ranks of the Navy MD MM 42 ( Drive Technology ), ME 43 (electrical engineering) and 44 ( marine engineering ) was here essentially 41 ( vapor technique ) performed.
1997 moved the entire teaching at the newly built marine engineering school Parow, which since then includes all technical training units of the Navy to the ship security technology ( Neustadt in Holstein) and the Naval Operations School ( Bremerhaven ). The building of the Admiral Brommy barracks were demolished in 2000 and included the site to the seaport area. There remained only the lying for officers and NCOs directly by the barrack houses, other houses in the Brommystraße and the former officers' mess at the Peace Square receive. The former casino will be used as a dormitory for the reintegration of addicts into society from the Social Service Agency Oldenburg.
The town lies on the railway line Brake Hude - Nordenham Deutsche Bahn. Brake was up to the closure of the route and terminus of the line Oldenburg- Brake. In addition, Brake possessed over the adjacent Roden churches following the railway line Varel -Roden churches to Varel. The historic, listed building Braker station building of 1900 threatened after 18 years of vacancy and neglect by the owner of the German Bahn AG demolition.
Since mid-December 2010 Brake is integrated into the network of Regio -S -Bahn Bremen.
The trains stop only on Brake Train Station, the former train stations or stops Golzwarden and Kirchhammelwarden are out of operation since the 1980s and no longer usable. In the south of the city, the breakpoint Kirchhammelwarden to be reactivated in 2014. The competent LNVG has approved the reactivation. The timing of the financing of the new building on the west side is not yet determined. The Braker city council has decided the necessary planning for the platform, parking and bicycle shed in the spring of 2012.
Consists About the situated north of Brake and approved solely for motorized traffic Wesertunnel since January 2004, a direct connection to the motorway network ( A27 ). With Oldenburg, the city is connected by state road 211 and with Nordenham or Elsfleth via the federal highway 212
With the planned construction of the A 22 Brake would get a more direct connection to the German motorway network. Although the construction of the A 22 is considered to be a done deal, but it is still open, when to begin with the construction.
For 2011 it is planned to build the state road 211 New circumvention of the adjacent residential areas. The planned route runs from the intersection Weserstraße / B 212 between Ovelgönne and the ancient route along and closes behind Oldenbrok ( City center ) back to the old road layout. The deal was welcomed by the residents of the direct federal highway 211.
Ship and Ferry
With the opposite bank of the Weser Brake is connected via the fast ferry Brake Sandstedt. The River Weser island Harriersand is a ferry for pedestrians and cyclists.
In the summer season on the lower Weser excursion boats between Bremen and Bremerhaven with stops in Brake.
Bike paths in Brake
Brake is connected to the German Marshes, the Weser cycle path and cycle route to the Lower Weser.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Arp Schnitger (1648-1719), organ builder, born in Schmalenfleth, today part of Brake
- Hermann Gerhard Müller (1803-1881), mayor from 1856 to 1881 and member of the Reichstag
- Georg Seebeck (1845-1928), shipyard owner, born in Brake - Hammelwarden, in Brake buried
- Morisse Wilhelm (1870-1936), painter and restorer
- George of the Vring (1889-1968), writer and painter, honorary citizen of the city of Brake
- Heinz lamp (1896-1951), politician ( NSDAP) and SA- leader
- Gerd Achgelis (1908-1991), German aerobatic pilot
- Hans Hinrich Flöter (1910-2011), Reformed theologian and educator
- Enno Thümler (* 1937), politician ( CDU)
- Beate Schmolke - Hasselmann ( b. 1946 ), author
- Lutz Ackermann ( * 1949 ), journalist and radio and television presenter
- Niels Stolberg ( b. 1960 ), businessman, founder and former managing director of Beluga Shipping GmbH
- Björn Thümler (* 1970), politician ( CDU)
- Anke Erdmann ( b. 1972 ), politician ( Bündnis90/die Green )
- Dimo Wache (born 1973 ), football player
Connected to Brake
- Karl Rudolf Bromme (1804-1860), called Brommy; Admiral of the first German fleet, died in 1860 in St. Magnus, near Bremen, buried in Brake - Kirchhammelwarden
- Edward Scheve (1836-1909), founder of the Evangelical Free Church diakonia and external mission was temporarily Pastor in Brake
- Look Louis Castle (1839-1909), 1886-1909 pastor in Golzwarden, church historian
- Paul Brodek (1884-1942), member of the Oldenburg State Parliament, councilor and member of the Municipal Brake
- Helmut Debus (* 1949), Low German singer-songwriter, grew up in Brake