Bretten is a town in western Kraichgau, about 23 km northeast of Karlsruhe in Baden- Württemberg. It is to Bruchsal Ettlingen and the third largest city of the district of Karlsruhe and is a center for the surrounding communities. Since January 1, 1975 Bretten is large district. With the neighboring village gondola Home Bretten has administrative matters.
The most famous son of the town is the church reformer, and Luther contemporary Philipp Melanchthon, why is the name of Bretten " Melanchthon city ".
- 2.1 Data for Urban History
- 2.2 religions
- 2.3 Amalgamations
- 2.4 Population development
- 3.1 municipal
- 3.2 City Leaders
- 3.3 Coat of Arms
- 3.4 Town twinning
- 4.1 traffic
- 4.2 company
- 4.3 Media
- 4.4 Court, authorities and institutions
- 4.5 Education
- 4.6 Recreation and Sports
- 5.1 theater
- 5.2 Museums
- 5.3 Music
- 5.4 Structures
- 5.5 memorials
- 5.6 parks
- 5.7 Regular events
- 5.8 Scenic Routes
- 6.1 freeman
- 6.2 Sons and daughters of the town
- 6.3 Other affiliated with the City of personalities
Bretten is located in Kraichgau on the watershed between Walzenbach and Saalbach in the southwest to the Kraichbachtal in the Northeast. The city is located about 17 kilometers north of Pforzheim and 39 km southwest of Heilbronn. The Saalbach Valley since the Middle Ages, the southern main traffic route through the Kraichgau ( the northern via Sinsheim ) between the Odenwald and the Black Forest in the north to the south of the north / north west / west to south-east. In it, the important B 35 and the railway line to Stuttgart run.
The following cities and municipalities border the town of Bretten. They are listed clockwise, starting in the east: Knittlingen, newcomers and king -Stein (all Enz ) and Walzbachtal, gondola Home, Bruchsal, Kraichtal and Oberderdingen (all the district of Karlsruhe ).
The city Bretten form the core city and the nine districts Bauer Bach, Neibsheim and Büchig in the north, Diedelsheim, Rinklingen and (some away ) Dürrenbüchig in the West, Gölshausen the northeast and Ruit in the south and the smallest Brettener district Sprantal in the southwest.
For district Bauer Bach owns the house Hagenmühle. At the core of the hamlet town of Bretten baiting tree farms, places Kupferhälde and oil mill include the Ruiter Valley (formerly Sagmuhle ), the mill mountain mill and salt farms Mayrhofen and Schwarzerdhof. For district Rinklingen include the houses when Bretten Bahnhof, Reiterle and Talmuhle. For district Ruit include the hamlet Rotenbergerhof and the house Talmuhle. In Bretten risen is the village of White Mayrhofen, further lies in the field of nuclear city hall Geil Heimer Wiesench whose name suggests a deserted village. In the district Büchig in Bretten and partly also in the city Kraichtal is the deserted village Giegelnberg. In Neibsheim district lies the deserted village Randelstein.
Within the urban core still residential areas with their own name are distinguished which are derived from the original corridor or landscape name (for example Hausertal, Kupferhälde, Rechenberg or tub).
Bretten is a medium-sized town on the eastern edge of the Middle Upper Rhine region whose regional center is the city of Karlsruhe. For the central region Bretten still belong next to the town of Bretten communities gondola Home, Kürnbach, Oberderdingen, Sulzfeld and Zaisenhausen of the district of Karlsruhe, as well as the to the district Enz belonging Knittlingen.
The old Bretten ( about 170 m) is located in the Kraichgau on an exposed south-facing slope flattening a relatively wide valley that here at the confluence of the river Salzach (from the south ) and Weißach has formed tectonically support ( from the east ). Salzach and Weißach form from Bretten the Saalbach, which occurs in Bruchsal in the Upper Rhine lowlands and flows in Philipsburg into the Rhine. The proximity of the Rhine resulted in high relief energy to a varied landscape, the " Brettener hill country " helped the part of the Kraichgau to Bretten around. Its characteristic is usually to about 200 cm thick loess cover on limestone ( " karst concealed " ), but which is significantly threatened by soil erosion. Land surveyor has a few ravines there are left. The southern district area is still in parts of the landscape of the open karst dolines and swallow holes with (mostly under forest ) and the hedgerows in the open corridor. Between Bretten and Pforzheim is located at the St. Catherine's Hof one of the largest Uvalas.
Data on the city's history
- 767 mentioned as Villa Breteheim in the Lorsch Codex.
- 1109 Bretten is suburb of the Kraichgau counts of Lauffen and is around 1120 market town.
- 1209 reached the settlement to the Counts of Eberstein.
- 1254 first mention Bretten as a "city ".
- 1329 comes as Bretten Empire Pawn shaft to Electoral Palatinate, Palatinate Vogt of Oberamt Bretten is, among other things Weiprecht I of Helmstatt
- 1492 gives Count Palatine Philip Bretten four years markets.
- 1497 Philipp Melanchthon was born in the house of his grandfather Johann Reuter on Brettener marketplace.
- 1504 to Bretten successfully defends against the siege by Ulrich von Württemberg with 30,000 men.
- 1560 dies Philipp Melanchthon at Wittenberg.
- 1689 Bretten is destroyed in the Palatinate War of Succession.
- 1803 Bretten is due to the Imperial Diet Losing Baden and seat of an office, which in 1813 expanded to include the resolution Office Gochscheim.
- 1853 First railway connection to the railway line Stuttgart -Heidelberg
- 1879 After completion of the " Kraichgaubahn " Karlsruhe- Bretten is Heilbronn railway intersection.
- 1880/81 Construction of the synagogue
- 1936 The District Office Bretten is dissolved. The city and its surrounding areas come to the district office in Karlsruhe, Bruchsal Neibsheim comes to the district office.
- 1938 destruction of the synagogue in the Kristallnacht
- 1971-1975 inclusion of nine neighboring communities. Thus, the population exceeded the 20,000 mark, after which the city provided the request for elevation to the county seat, which the Baden-Württemberg state government then decided, with effect from 1 January 1975.
- In 1990, the home day Baden-Württemberg took place in Bretten.
- 1992 Opening of the city railway line from Karlsruhe and Bretten.
The territory of the town of Bretten probably belonged since the city's founding, but certainly since 1283 to the bishopric of Speyer and was the Archdeacon of St. Guido assumed in Speyer. In 1536 occurred Baptist and 1540 summarized the Reformation foot. Was the city in 1556 first Lutheran, so she turned to the late 16th century the majority of the Reformed confession to. As of 1685 but there was again a Lutheran congregation. Both communities united in 1822 to a Protestant community, especially the Grand Duchy of Baden, was one of the Bretten since 1803 / 06, 1821, the union of the two confessions had introduced. Bretten became the seat of a Dean, the county, the church district of Bretten, changed several times in the course of history. Also, most parts of the city Bretten were early Protestant and so today belong to the Evangelical Church District Bretten total of 26 parishes, including the seven parishes of the town of Bretten ( Bretten, Diedelsheim, Dürrenbüchig, Gölshausen, Rinklingen, Ruit, Sprantal ). The Protestants in the districts Büchig and Neibsheim are provided for by the parish gondola home and in the neighborhood farmer Bach by the congregation Kürnbach from.
In Bretten itself but there was despite the introduction of the Reformation continue to Catholics. In 1705 their number was 133 compared to 520 Lutherans and Reformed 390. The districts Bauer Bach, Büchig and Neibsheim remained predominantly Catholic until today; they belonged before 1803 to the diocese of Speyer. Heard all Catholics initially to the diocese of Speyer, and from 1810 to Generalvikariat Bruchsal, as they were in 1827 assigned to the Archdiocese of Freiburg, which was at that time built new for the Grand Duchy of Baden. Bretten later became the seat of a deanery, whose Dekanatsbüro was located until 31 December 2007 in Epping. It included the parishes of the city and the entire surrounding region Bretten. Since 2008 Bretten is part of the Dean's Office Bruchsal. The parishes within the town of Bretten are summarized for both pastoral care units Bretten City and Bretten country. To Bretten - city parish of St. Lawrence, whose parish church was built from 1936 to 1938, with its two affiliated churches of St. Elisabeth ( residential tub, completion of the church in 1965 ) and St. Stephen Diedelsheim ( completion of the church in 1991 ). To Seelsorgeeinheit Bretten country parishes in the districts Bauer Bach include ( Church of St. Peter ), Büchig ( Holy Cross Church ) and Neibsheim ( Church of St. Mauritius, built in 1791/92, with a branch church Guter Hirte, community Gondelsheim ).
Besides the two major Christian churches exist in Bretten also communities of various free churches, including a Baptist church community ( Baptist ) and a municipality of the People's Mission decisively Christians V. Also, the New Apostolic Church and the Jehovah's Witnesses are represented in Bretten.
For the Muslim population Bretten the Green Mosque of Turkish citizens was founded in 1985. Today it is the DİTİB ( Turkish Islamic Institute for Religion eV ) to.
In the town of Bretten nine surrounding municipalities were integrated 1971-1975. Except Neibsheim, which was still part of the district of Bruchsal in the incorporation, all already belonged to the district of Karlsruhe. The population figures behind the town names indicate the present state again (as at 31 October 2011).
February 2, 1972: Bauer Bach (now 1,301 inhabitants)
March 1, 1972: Neibsheim, Bruchsal County (now 1,879 inhabitants)
June 1, 1972: Dürrenbüchig (now 555 inhabitants)
January 1, 1973: Ruit (now 1,464 inhabitants)
January 1, 1973: Sprantal (now 395 inhabitants)
1 January 1974: Büchig in Bretten (now 1,488 inhabitants)
January 1, 1975: Diedelsheim (now 3,477 inhabitants)
January 1, 1975: Gölshausen (now 1,747 inhabitants)
Population figures for the respective territorial status. The figures are estimates or census results (¹ ) and official updates by the respective statistical offices ( primary residences only ).
¹ census results
Bretten: Population development 1940-1970
Now the municipality of Bretten: Population development 1960-2007
Since Bretten is a large district, the technical supervision lies with the authorities in Karlsruhe, which is otherwise only the case with urban districts. The district of Karlsruhe, the Bretten belongs, on the other hand are only responsible for legal supervision.
The municipal council of the town of Bretten has 26 members which lead to the title of City Council. The 2004 election led to the following result:
In parentheses are the changes compared to the last election are given.
The municipal elections in 2009 returned the following results:
In parentheses are the changes compared to the last election are given.
In addition, in the nine districts villages are set up for the purposes of Baden-Württemberg municipal code, each with its own mayor and Ortschaftsrat as its Chairperson.
Mayor is the mayor, since January 1, 1975 the Lord Mayor, who is elected directly by the population to eight years. His permanent representative is the First Councillor with the official title of mayor.
Mayor or Mayor
- To 1986: Alfred Easy (mayors, from 1 January 1975 Lord Mayor )
- 1986 to 31 January 2010: Paul Metzger (Mayor )
- Since February 1, 2010: Martin Wolff (Mayor )
Coat of arms
Blazon: Silver and blue riveted with standing on top of diamonds. The city colors are blue and white. The coat of arms has been going on for many centuries, it symbolizes the Bavarian Wittelsbach lozenges or, as the town of Bretten belonged until 1803 to the Electoral Palatinate and thus to Bavaria.
Bretten maintains twinning with Hemer (1979) and Wittenberg ( 1990) in Germany, Longjumeau (1981) and Bellegarde- sur -Valserine (2001) in France, Condeixa -a-Nova (1985 ) in Portugal and Pontypool (1994 ) in Wales.
The district Diedelsheim maintains partnership relations with Hidas in Hungary and the district Neibsheim to Neuflize in France and Nemesnádudvar in Hungary.
Economy and infrastructure
The city is located in the edge region of the major conurbations in Baden- Württemberg, Karlsruhe in the west, in the south of Pforzheim, Stuttgart / Heilbronn in the east / northeast and Mannheim / Heidelberg in the north. The main north -south and east-west highways surrounding the city in a large rectangle.
The Federal Highway 8 is on the junction Pforzheim -Nord, to achieve 5 A about the connecting points Karlsruhe- Durlach and Bruchsal.
Through the urban area, the Federal Roads Lead 35 ( Germersheim -Illingen ), 293 ( Heilbronn- Bergshausen ) and 294 ( Freiburg im Breisgau ). Bretten is the intersection of three major roads, resulting in significant traffic congestion in the core city and still leads, which are reduced by bypass roads and multi-lane expansion and regional basis already were. Has increased significantly despite nightly truck drive-through ban the burden of truck traffic that wants to avoid the toll on the highways.
The Bretten Bahnhof is located at the intersection of railway lines Kraichgaubahn (Karlsruhe - Heilbronn) and Western Railway ( Muehlacker - Bruchsal ). The route of the Western Railway has been operating the high-speed line Mannheim -Stuttgart ( branch of the Rhine north of Bruchsal direction Stuttgart Vaihingen / Enz ) only major freight route and major axis of regional traffic.
In the public transport (PT ) on the rail Bretten is connected to the Stadtbahn Karlsruhe. On Brettener station provides the light rail lines S4 Karlsruhe- Heilbronn- Öhringen and S9 Bruchsal- precinct. The Brettener Districts Bauer Bach, Gölshausen ( industrial area ), Rinklingen, Dürrenbüchig (S4 ) and Diedelsheim and Ruit (S9 ) are at these two light rail lines. In Brettener core urban area, there are next to the railway station or the bus stops, " city center ", " Wannenweg ", " education center " and " Kupferhälde ". Public transport also operate numerous bus lines.
In Bretten based businesses are - among others - pet food Deuerer, the Neff GmbH, Seeburger AG, the SBS Software GmbH, msgGillardon ( until October 2008 Gillardon AG financial software ) and the BGT Bischoff Glass AG, among others, for glazing is responsible to the Reichstag dome and the Berlin main station.
In Bretten appear as newspaper Brettener the news, a head Journal of Karlsruhe Baden Latest News. Furthermore, there is the free weekly paper Brettener week. Furthermore, there is the city magazine Willi and the regional television KraichgauTV.
Court, authorities and institutions
Bretten is the seat of the district court Bretten and a notary belonging to the district court of the district of Karlsruhe and the Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe. Furthermore, the Employment Agency has an office here. The Central Bußgeldstelle of the Regional Council of Karlsruhe had by early 2010 their headquarters here. Bretten is also home to the church district Bretten of the Evangelical Church in Baden.
In Bretten is the European Study Center at the University of Southern Queensland ( USQ ), which has its headquarters in Australia. The USQ has six faculties of the areas of humanities, business administration, economics, education, science, engineering and surveying, and natural sciences.
The city is the recipient of two high schools, one junior high school, three elementary and secondary schools and six elementary schools. There are also sponsored by the district Karlsruhe vocational schools to which a Technical High School, the Commercial School, the Home Economics School and the Commercial school include; Furthermore, there is the Youth Music School Lower Kraichgau eV Bretten and the folk high school Bretten. The schools are as follows:
- Melanchthon -Gymnasium
- Edith-Stein -Gymnasium
- Max - Planck -Realschule
- Johann- Peter-Hebel - School (primary and secondary school with Werkrealschule with primary school education class, bound full-day secondary school )
- Schiller School ( Elementary and junior high school work, part -bound full-day primary school, preparatory class, class cooperation, base school LIMA - RIMA )
- Primary and secondary school Diedelsheim
- Primary schools in the districts of Bach Bauer, Büchig, Gölshausen, Neibsheim, Rinklingen and Ruit
- Eduard Spranger - school Gölshausen - School for Mentally Handicapped
- Evangelical Hohberg Bretten - Special Education Elementary and Secondary School
- Pestalozzi School - Special Education Diedelsheim
- Schulkindergarten Gölshausen
- Vocational schools Bretten with technical secondary school
The Melanchthon's house in Bretten bears for many years in the research and preservation of the heritage of Philipp Melanchthon. It comes out with a variety of events, forums, symposiums, lectures and conferences. Also located in the " European Melanchthon Academy " one of the largest southwest German museum libraries and a renowned non-university research institute.
Recreation and Sports
Bretten has an outdoor and an indoor pool.
One of the biggest sports clubs Bretten is the VfB Bretten. The first team of the masters of the football department is currently playing in the county league Bruchsal. The club is also affiliated with a baseball department, which has existed since 1992 Bretten Kangaroos. This play since 2004 with their 1.Herrenmannschaften in the highest league of Baden-Württemberg, the Association League.
The largest sports club in Bretten is the Turnverein 1846 eV Bretten, which total 3450 members counts. Competition and competitive sports, gymnastics, health and leisure sports on offer to members. The club is a regular participant with a large number of participants in the German gymnastics festivals. There are every year many youth camps offered. Again and again, the club boasts great events of how the country's children Turnfest (almost 5000 participants) and currently the " Four Motors for Europe ".
Culture and sights
- Gugg -e- mol Kellertheater
- The Baden State Theatre comes to guest appearances in the town hall and park in the courtyard of the Johann- Peter-Hebel - school.
- The theater group of Melanchthon Gymnasium Bretten is for 33 years and leads an annual play on.
- Melanchthon's house on the market square, built in 1897-1903 by Hermann Billing instead of the birthplace of the reformer
- City Museum in the Swiss Court
- German Guardian Angel Museum in the Swiss Court
- Gerber Gerber House Museum
- Indian Museum in Bretten Diedelsheim district
The Musikverein Stadtkapelle Bretten eV framed numerous festivals and celebrations inside and outside Bretten. One of the oldest natural tone fanfares Germany plays in the " blue-white " city colors. The fanfare and Trommlerzug Bretten 1504 eV occurs at home and abroad. The MGB Big Band is known for jazz music of the highest level in the region, but also abroad. The Association for Early Music and culture leads under the name Loeffelstielzchen old music on genuine instruments.
- " Hundles " Fountain, " Brettener Hundle ", a pug, is a landmark of the city.
- Collegiate Church, the main Protestant church of the city, originally Reformed Church
- Holy Cross Church, former Lutheran church, built from 1687
- St Lawrence's Church, catholic
- Old Town Hall on the Market Square, built in 1787
- Office building, built 1783/84
- Gerber House, the oldest, built around 1585 residential building in the city
- Hebererhaus, half-timbered house in the Pforzheimer Straße, 1555 birthplace of the travel writer Michael Heberer. The Hebererhaus was destroyed on the night of 6 to 7 September 2007, a devastating fire. In May 2009 it was announced that the reconstruction is delayed due to massive problems with the insurance.
- Pfeifer tower (13th century) and Simmel tower ( 14th century), towers of the former city wall. The roof of the Pfeifer tower, which was destroyed on August 13, 1689 by the French as they kindled quite Bretten, was renewed on 13 June 2009.
- Former castles at Castle Bretten salt Mayrhofen, Upper and Lower Towns Neibsheim (water castle Neibsheim ).
Since 1979, stands at the parking area Engelberg 4-6 a memorial stone, reminiscent of the destroyed synagogue, at school, the rabbinate and the mikveh Jewish inhabitants, who were expelled or deported by the Nazi terror.
The Tierpark Bretten is the largest zoo in Germany. The Rose Garden is a facility located in the lower part of the cemetery park.
- Since 1988 the city every three years gives the birthday of its most famous son Melanchthon price the town of Bretten in a public ceremony.
- Peter and Paul feast, medieval town festival, which takes place after the feast of St. Peter and Paul annually on the first weekend
- Wine Market
- Christmas market since 2008 with a historic market part
- Brettener Bütt
- Festival of Europe
- Krämer market, 2x a year
- Arts and Crafts Market
- Easter Market
Bretten is due to two major tourist roads that lead past numerous places of interest:
- Bertha Benz Memorial Route, from Mannheim to Pforzheim and Bretten back to Mannheim.
- Wine Road Kraichgau- Stromberg, which connects to 355 kilometers, the Badische with the Württemberg wine region.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Philipp Melanchthon ( Philipp Schwarzerdt; 1497-1560 ), reformer
- Samuel Eisenmenger ( Siderocrates; 1534-1585 ), physician and astronomer
- Michael Heberer of Bretten (* 1555-1560, died 1633), author of the report " aegyptica Servitus "
- Louis Paravicini (1811-1878), politician ( NLP)
- Ludwig Karl Friedrich Turban (1821-1898), Minister of State of Baden (1876-1893)
- Max Heinsheimer (1832-1892), lawyer
- Fencing Hermann (1880-1952), politician ( center, CDU), Minister of Justice of Baden ( South Baden )
- Hermann Weber (1899-1956), zoologist
- Beuttenmüller Otto (1901-1999), genealogist
- Moritz herb (1905-1941), politician ( NSDAP)
- Alfred Neff (1906-1970), entrepreneur
- Hellmut Berg (1908-1960), geophysicist and meteorologist
- Heinz Müller- Dietz ( born 1931 ), lawyer and author
- Helmut Wirth ( born 1933), engineer, member of parliament (CDU )
- Klaus Schnabel ( b. 1937 ), theologian
- Manfred Peacock ( born 1939 ), Member of Parliament (CDU ) and inventor
- Roland Schmider ( born 1940 ), president of the sports club Karlsruher SC ( 1974-2000 )
- Klaus Nohlen (* 1945), building researchers
- Joachim Kößler ( b. 1950 ), federal bank director and politician ( CDU), Member of Parliament
- Heidrun Mössner ( born 1950 ), author and documentary filmmaker
- Peter Reichert ( b. 1961 ), football player, since 2004 fan representative of VfB Stuttgart
- Ingrid Herr (born 1962 ), biologist and scientist in the field of cancer research
- Marion Peacock (born 1966 ), author
- Cris Cosmo (born 1978 ), musician
- Nicole Söder ( b. 1980 ), football player of SC Freiburg
- Serhat Akın ( born 1981 ), football player
- Selçuk Alibaz (* 1989), football player
Other personalities associated with the city
- Nino de Angelo, pop singer, lived in Bretten
- The shepherd, Beat group, comes from Bretten
- Olaf Malolepski, pop singers in the Flippers, lives in Bretten since 1971