A mason is a builder whose eponymous core activity is the production of masonry. The mason is the main builders of the shell. Therefore, it usually results in smaller construction projects ( single-family ) also concrete, reinforced concrete, screed and plaster as well as sealing and drainage works. As part of the progressive division of labor in the construction industry have also developed for many areas of the broad occupational profile of the mason specialists with a narrower profession that mainly operate on larger construction sites.
1934 Occupation Maurer was first performed in the German Reich in the list of Crafts and 1936 in the field of industry as a recognized apprenticeship. The apprentice system was regulated in 1940 in crafts by professional rules. In the Federal Republic of Germany followed in May 1974, a reorganization of education in the craft and industry by the Regulation on vocational training in the construction industry. 1998 were summarized for masonry and concrete construction craft through a change in the Crafts Code of professional mason with the two professions concrete and reinforced concrete worker and a furnace and chimney builder.
From 1999 to 2010 the number of employees subject to social insurance bricklayer, construction worker, Housing Officer, oven, furnace and chimney builder in Germany fell from 296 047 to 146 878 people. The profession is a classic male domain even today. 2010, the proportion of women was not in training and professional practice in the DACH countries about 0.8%.
In the three years of vocational training in addition to the time needed for execution of masonry and made of reinforced concrete components artisanal knowledge and skills in plastering and floor and scaffolding work are taught. During the construction phase training - 1st stage for Housing Officer after two years, 2nd stage for Mason after the third year - receives the budding Maurer also basic knowledge of tiling and carpentry work.
The academic part of the training also provides the required knowledge of the correct execution of building structures regarding moisture protection and thermal insulation of buildings, basic knowledge of materials science and, not least, an awareness of safety in the workplace.
In addition to the educational and occupational training phase related practice and related theory classes are taught in -company courses. Therefore often is also a " trialen training " spoken. The inter-company training will be held in training centers, which are in turn funded by the Soka -Bau ( social security funds in the construction industry ).
Aim of teaching is the ability to make a shell according to plan from the cellar floor slab being carried out correctly to below the roof and paying attention to the intersection with other trades, such as carpenters, plasterers, glaziers, electricians and heating engineers.
In Austria, the apprenticeship is three years. Apprentices are - as in Germany - dual in training enterprises ( construction company) and vocational schools trained. The basic training content do not differ significantly from the German. In addition to the skills for the construction of new buildings, the renovation and conversion of existing buildings will be an increasingly important area of responsibility. With the production of thermal insulation of old houses Maurer contribute significantly to energy saving and environmental protection. Related apprenticeships can be completed with a reduced teaching time, eg Formworkers, road maintenance specialist, civil contractors or floor layers.
The apprentice is the professional education with the final apprenticeship examination. Career opportunities exist for example through training for foremen, supervisors or site managers. A successfully completed apprenticeship also allows access to vocational Matura ( Berufsreifeprüfung ) and hence to further higher qualifications.
The training for masons EFZ (French Maçon CFC, Italian Muratore AFC) lasts three years in Switzerland. The training places are teaching, vocational school and industry courses.
Major craft tools are trowel, trowel, masonry pan, spirit level, plumb bob, mason line, mortar trough, mixing machine and masonry hammer.
The most important work materials are artificial masonry units of various kinds (eg, brick, aerated concrete ) and mortar.
The Masons are one of the professional groups who back a lot of value on their traditions in today's building trade. Some of them go after the apprenticeship as formerly with Wanderlust, also called journeymen hike or roller.