The Women's League is the top division in the German women's football. The Bundesliga was introduced to the model of the League of Gentlemen in 1989 by the German Football Association and adopted in 1990 on the game mode.
In the Bundesliga, the German champion is in league system, in which each club competes in home and away matches against each other club, pitted, who represents Germany in the UEFA Women's Champions League. The last two teams relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga, which forms since 2004, the second- highest division below the Premier League. Reigning German champions from the 2012 /13 VfL Wolfsburg.
- 2.1 prehistory
- 2.2 1990-1997: The two-tier League
- 2.3 Since 1997: The single-track Bundesliga
- 3.1 club name changes and over - kicks
- 6.1 stages
- 6.2 viewers
- 6.3 Finance
- 6.4 The Bundesliga in the media
- 6.5 Foreign players
Mode and alignment
During a championship year, which is divided into a round-trip round, take all twelve clubs in the Bundesliga according to a fixed pre-season game plan itself twice, once each in their own stadium and once at the stadium of the opponent. A Bundesliga season with their 22 game days extends generally from August or September to May or June. In years in which a World Cup or Olympic Games take place, it is possible that the league for over a month rest because the World Championships not always take place during the summer break. The 2007 World Cup was held, for example, in September 2007. European Championships, however, take place during the summer break principle. Between late December and late February, a winter break is inserted, in the contested among other things, the DFB Cup Hall. The individual match days will kick off Sunday at 11 and 14 clock. English weeks are very rare, as pent-up games will be played under way at the weekend.
The game plan is established with the help of a each season changing key number that determines which system or order take the clubs in one season against each other. The key number and thus the game plan is proposed with the aid of a computer program taking into account relevant parameters, such as other major events. The appointment fixing the games depends on the frame schedule of FIFA and UEFA.
The team that took first place after this double point round, is German Champion and takes for Germany participated in the UEFA Women's Champions League. Also qualified is the runner-up. If a German club, the UEFA Women's Champions League win and not complete the Bundesliga season on one of the first two places in the table, Germany receives an additional place. The two last-place teams must descend to the 2nd Bundesliga, the two group winners ascend directly to the Bundesliga in return. In determining the rankings, the points obtained by a club are initially relevant. Here, a point and a loss zero points are awarded for a win three points for a draw. In case of equality the first tiebreaker on goal difference on the order of placement, with the same difference after the number of goals scored. If this comparison still bring a decision, the following criteria should be consulted: the overall result from the games against each other, the number of goals scored in these matches against each other, the number of away goals scored in the direct comparison. After that, the away goals rule in all games. Bring these comparisons, a nothing, a decision game is played on neutral ground. This was so far in the Bundesliga but never the case.
The mode of the League was changed yet again since the Erstaustragung. Between 1990 and 1997, the Bundesliga from two groups existed (North and South ), each with ten teams. In the 1991/92 season included two groups of eleven teams, as two teams from the former East Germany were included. After return games the two top-ranked teams in both groups qualified for the semifinals. The semi-final was played in home and away matches. As in the European Cup counted in point- and Torgleichheit the higher number of away goals. The final was played in a game at the stadium one of the two finalists. Since 1997, the league is run single track. The three-point rule since the season 1995 /96 apply. Prior to plus and minus points were awarded for each game - win: 2-0 points, draw: 1:1 points, defeat: 0:2 points. Since 1993 also applies to the women's game time of two halves of 45 minutes. Previously took a women's soccer game only twice 40 minutes.
Is hosted by the Bundesliga DFB, who takes care of the implementation, licensing, and to refereeing. To participate in the Bundesliga every club needs a license allocated by the DFB. The license will be awarded on the basis of sporting, legal, personnel, administrative, infrastructural and technical safety, media technology, and financial criteria. Here, the conditions referred to are of equal importance, however, the grant of a license shall decide regularly to the financial criteria, which are intended to ensure the economic performance of the clubs.
The licensing process is not as extensive and complex as the men's Bundesliga, as the budgets of the Bundesliga in the six-figure range are. Due to the special attention paid to the examination of liquidity, ie considering whether the clubs are able to maintain the operation of gambling for the coming season, it's never happened since the inception of the Bundesliga in 1990 means that a club during the had to file for the current season insolvency or withdraw its team for financial reasons from playing. If a club does not Bundesliga license, it shall be subject to the appropriate standards and licensing requirements relegated to the Regionalliga its regional association will therefore be seen the bottom of the table Bundesliga 2 in the previous season. The number of originally relegated teams reduced accordingly. Sportfreunde Siegen was denied a license for the following season for economic reasons in the season 2002 /03. Because breaches of license conditions so far, no association was demonstrated with point deductions and / or fines.
The DFB is also responsible for convening the referee. Since 1993, all matches will be controlled by referees. The resulting costs are semi-annually apportioned equally between the clubs.
From 1974 to 1990, the German football championship was played 17 times, which organized the DFB in women's football. The last time these German soccer Women's Championship took place in 1990, for which previously had 16 teams as each best team in their state association qualified for the finals.
Since the mid- 1980s has been discussing the introduction of a national league. The reason for this was mainly that it was in the highest leagues across Germany to large performance differences between some of the top teams and the rest of the league. In western and northern Germany in 1985 and 1986 combined cross- leagues were founded. In the other regional associations, however, only leagues existed at the association level. Through a nationwide league with uniformly strong cast, the power level should be increased. On the DFB Bundestag in 1986 in Bremen, the delegates voted almost unanimously for the preparation of such league. However, the Bundesliga has not been introduced. Only after the women's national team won the European Championship in 1989 in their own country, it was decided at the DFB Bundestag in 1989 in Trier, the introduction of a two-tier Premier League for season 1990/91.
The newly created Bundesliga should include a North and a Südstaffel in which ten teams should compete against each other. Already in the first round of applications is reported 35 clubs for the planned Bundesliga. Should for awarding 20 seats initially provided - similar to the introduction of the national league of men - a key points to be worked out in which the successes of recent years are considered as the most important factor. Finally, it was determined for the qualification that each best team of each of the then 16 member associations DFB is automatically on completion of the 1989/90 season there; for the remaining four places the second best team of the individual associations should play.
The 20 founding members of the Bundesliga were finally:
- From the Oberliga Nord: Fortuna Sachsenross Hanover, SC Poppenbuettel, Schmalfelder SV, SV Wilhelmshaven, VfR Eintracht Wolfsburg
- From the West Regional: SSG Bergisch Gladbach, KBC Duisburg, VfB Rheine, TSV Siegen
- From the Oberliga Berlin: 1 FC Neukölln
- From the Oberliga Hessen: FSV Frankfurt, SG Praunheim
- From the fifth division Rhineland: SC 07 Bad Neuenahr
- From the fifth division Saarland: VfR 09 Saarbrücken
- From the Association League West: TuS Niedernkirchen
- From the Association League swimming: SC blade Seckach
- From the fifth division Südbaden: TuS Binzen
- From the fifth division Württemberg: VfL Sindelfingen, VfL Ulm / Neu- Ulm
- From the Bavarian League: Bayern Munich
1990-1997: The two-tier League
The northern group was initially dominated by series champion TSV Siegen, who won the first four season victories and beyond won three league titles. The first FC Neukölln in Berlin lost in the first season all 18 championship games. In the Südstaffel FSV Frankfurt and TuS Niedernkirchen the trendsetting clubs were. Niedernkirchen fell back as top scorer Heidi Mohr in 1994 moved to TuS Ahrbach. In the wake of German reunification in 1991 the USV Jena and FC bismuth Aue were taken from the new federal states. The Bundesliga has been increased for a season on two groups of eleven teams. Jena got off post haste, while Aue the team withdrew for financial reasons end of the season.
In the early years of the Bundesliga, the former pioneers of women's football were replaced by aspiring newcomers. 1994 increased the Master of 1985, KBC Duisburg and record champions SSG Bergisch Gladbach together from the Bundesliga from, while clubs like FC Rumeln - Kaldenhausen and green and white Brauweiler able to establish themselves in the top flight. In the southern group, the FSV Frankfurt played up. 1995 won the Bornheimer interior down to the semi-final first leg against Rumeln - Kaldenhausen all games.
Since 1997: The single-track Bundesliga
For the 1997/1998 season, the Bundesliga has been reduced to a group of twelve teams, because the performance differences were still too big. Automatically qualify were the first four teams of both groups. The teams ranked five to eight formed with eight teams of the respective second leagues four groups of four teams. The four group winners also qualified for the single-track Bundesliga. Fortuna Sachsenross Hanover had indeed sporty qualified but withdrew for financial reasons. For advanced Hamburger SV after.
The first championship was secured by single-track Bundesliga FSV Frankfurt. After the demise of the club began. First they dropped back into midfield, then left in the summer of 2005, the entire first team of the club. The following season it rained up on a draw partly hefty defeats. After the 2005/06 season, the club disbanded the women's football department. Even the now impersonated to Sportfreunde Siegen Ex Series champion TSV Siegen fell back and eventually moved in 2001 to the Regionalliga West back.
From the decline of the FSV Frankfurt benefited primarily the SG Praunheim (later 1st FFC Frankfurt), which many players, including Birgit Prinz, could poach from rivals. Between 1999 and 2008, the club was able to secure seven championships. After the descent of the FSV Frankfurt, the first FFC Frankfurt is the only founding association, which has never been relegated from the Bundesliga.
Since the late 90s, the former DDR series Master 1 FFC Turbine Potsdam was able to secure a top position in the league and win in the 2000s several times the championship. This Potsdam is measured at the national and international titles so far the most successful football team in the new federal states.
In addition to the FFC Frankfurt and 1 FFC Turbine Potsdam, FC Rumeln - Kaldenhausen ( FCR 2001 Duisburg today ) could permanently establish in the table top. In the 2000s the first 3 places of the table from these three clubs were dominated. The FFC Heike Rheine was able to secure third place in the 2003/04 season. FC Bayern Munich came in 2008 /09 with the 2nd place and the chance to win the league title a surprise success.
Since the formation of the Bundesliga in 1990, played a total of 44 teams in the German top flight. As the only club in the first FFC Frankfurt was (until 1999: SG Praunheim ) in the league so far in all 17 seasons. This is followed by the FSV Frankfurt and FFC Heike Rheine (formerly VfB and FC Eintracht ) with 16, and the FFC Brauweiler Pulheim 2000 ( formerly SV Grün-Weiß Brauweiler) and VfL Wolfsburg (formerly VfR Eintracht Wolfsburg and WSV Wolfsburg) with 15 seasons.
The clubs in the Bundesliga so far came from both cities as well as from smaller towns or villages. Smallest League community was Ruppach - Goldhausen, home of TuS Ahrbach, with about 1,200 inhabitants. In recent years, the Women's Bundesliga has moved to the big cities. From Berlin, Duisburg, Frankfurt am Main and Munich, there were two Bundesliga teams in a city.
The geographical distribution of the Bundesliga clubs across the country is uneven. While in season 2011/12 a total of three clubs from North Rhine -Westphalia are represented in the Bundesliga, four clubs spread across the southern half of the country, two on the north and three teams on the east.
Clubs in the season 2013/14:
- Bayer Leverkusen
- Bayern Munich
- TSG 1899 Hoffenheim ( climber )
- FCR 2001 Duisburg
- 1st FFC Frankfurt
- 1 FFC Turbine Potsdam
- FF USV Jena
- BV Cloppenburg ( climber )
- VfL Sindelfingen
- SC Freiburg
- SG Essen- Schönebeck
- VfL Wolfsburg ( defending champion, cup winners )
With Schleswig -Holstein, Rhineland -Palatinate, Hamburg, Bremen, Berlin, Mecklenburg- Vorpommern, Saarland, Saxony and Saxony -Anhalt have nine states currently have no football team in the highest German league. From Bremen and Saxony- Anhalt never came a Bundesliga club.
Club name changes and over - kicks
In the course of Bundesliga history, it was more common for renaming and over dispute. Some clubs became independent and withdrew from their regular clubs. Most of the clubs hoped to better marketing opportunities. In Rheine and Wolfsburg was played each under three different names. The DFB has this introduced the so-called " license transfer ": If the woman football section of the club closed joins another club or a private club founded as the rights, the athletic skills to the new club over. This right, however, only every five years may be exercised.
Here is an overview:
The Bundesliga champions
The section of German Women's Champion this main article contains all the German champions in women's football, including the German masters before the introduction of the Women's Bundesliga from the 1990/91 and the GDR Champion.
Since the one-track of the Women's League for season 1997/98 the end of season table first is German champion. Since 2009, the Master gets a championship trophy presented as a trophy. Previously, there was a trophy. In addition, a club from won three Bundesliga championships may one, from five a second, and from ten to wear a third champion star above the club crest.
In the history of the Bundesliga seven different clubs won the league title. The most successful club is the first FFC Frankfurt won seven league championships. Frankfurt's lead in the league table of the women's Bundesliga.
The TSV Siegen brought not only the first championship in the Bundesliga in 1991, but was able to defend his title as the first club. A " hat-trick " in the Bundesliga reached the first FFC Frankfurt ( 2001-2003), even four times in a row won Turbine Potsdam ( 2009-2012 ).
Since the founding of the League managed three teams to reach the championship undefeated. . The first team this succeeded the TSV Siegen 1992 1995 became the FSV Frankfurt also undefeated the championship title, while it was in the semi-final first leg against FC Rumeln - Kaldenhausen (today: FCR 2001 Duisburg ) a 2-2 draw. The first FFC Frankfurt was undefeated champions for the seasons 2001/ 02 and 2006/ 2007.
The up and relegated
The composition of the Bundesliga game changes every year by the descent of the last-place clubs that are replaced by the best teams in the underlying class in return.
In the first seven years, the league played with 20 teams, one of which descended four teams each season. An exception was the 1991/92 season in which the league played with 22 teams, the determined six relegated. In the first season it hit the SC 07 Bad Neuenahr and the TuS Binzen, 1 FC Neukölln and SV Wilhelmshaven. While Bad Neuenahr again today plays in the Bundesliga, the other three clubs never returned.
Best climber of all time was the SV Grün-Weiß Brauweiler (today: FFC Brauweiler Pulheim ). In the 1991/92 season Brauweiler-Str. inner attracted to the finals, where they were but then stopped by the TSV Siegen. But had to dismount immediately in the 2002/03 season both riders.
A total of five clubs are promoted team record with three ascents. The SC 07 Bad Neuenahr abolished in 1993, 1995 and 1997 the rise. The TSV Crailsheim succeeded in 1995, 2004 and 2006, the leap into the House of Lords. The third man is the Hamburger SV ( 1997, 2001 and 2003). Last managed 1.FC Saarbrücken ( 2003, 2007 and 2009) and Tennis Borussia Berlin (1991, 2002 and 2009 ) the third ascent. In addition to Bad Neuenahr only Schmalfelder SV and VfL Wolfsburg managed to twice its chances of promotion.
Relegated record is 1 FC Saarbrücken, the club has had to take four times the transition into the second tier, followed by Bad Neuenahr and the Schmalfelder SV, each with three downs. While Bad Neuenahr now one back to the regular teams of the Bundesliga, narrow field now plays in the regional league.
The FF USV Jena is the club with the longest Bundesliga abstinence. The Thuringian interior was achieved only after 16 years of the return to the Bundesliga.
The environment of the Bundesliga
The stages of the Women's Bundesliga are much smaller and less comfortable than the stages of the men's Bundesliga. Only six stadiums have a capacity in excess of 10,000 seats. The currently largest venue, the stadium Essen in Essen, where the ladies of the SGS food plays its home games, with a capacity of 20,650 seats, followed by the Freiburg Möslestadion with 18,000 seats.
As of 2013/14 season
In the early years of the Bundesliga average attendance was about 200 Ever since winning the World Cup 2003, this section is greatly increased. Four-digit viewership occurred not only in top games, and some clubs could double or triple their average attendance. In the season 2011/12 was set up with an average of 1,121 a new record. Most viewers have the top teams Turbine Potsdam FFC Frankfurt, FCR Duisburg and VfL Wolfsburg and the SG Essen- Beautiful basin, few viewers have traditionally Bayern Munich and Hamburger SV.
Previously there were seven league games with more than 5,000 spectators:
The following average attendances have been achieved in the Seasons:
Especially after the World Cup Soccer Championships Women (2003, 2007, 2011 ) increase the viewership and decreased in the following years, again somewhat.
The Bundesliga is a three- tier society, despite the concentration of power. The top teams dominate the league and often drive a high victories. The reason for this lies in the professional management of the top clubs and the resulting, relatively lush budget of half a million euros and more, enable the obligations of several top players. However, the majority of the Premier League has to make do with less than 500,000 euros per season, in part, the distributions of the television broadcasting funds and the funds provided by the DFB are ( to fund a full-time trainer and manager ) are the only pillars of the club financing.
With a budget in the amount of 1,000,000 euros for the first time went the first FFC Frankfurt in the 2007/ 08 season. Never before has a club on such a lavish budget in the Bundesliga. In the season 2011/12 Frankfurt planned with a budget of 1.7 million euros.
The Bundesliga in the media
While the matches of the national team are transmitted for several years on live television, TV images of the Bundesliga are rare. The Hessischer Rundfunk and the Rundfunk Berlin- Brandenburg show in their regional sports programs cutouts from the games of the 1st FFC Frankfurt and the first FFC Turbine Potsdam. Since the season 2006/ 07 the German shows in the sports spectacle reports the top games. Each League team gets per season TV revenue in the amount of 69,000 euros. The public broadcasters ARD and ZDF have the rights to broadcast the games of the Bundesliga, where they were acquired together with the rights to the third league of men and the games of the national team of women for 180 million. In addition to the television services also transmits the DFB on its Internet portal in each game of a match day as live web stream. From the 2013/2014 season transfers euros per match sports game.
In half a page the kicker sports magazine informs readers with results, goalscorers, table and news about the women's Bundesliga. The monthly magazine 11 Friends has a INSERTS called 11 girlfriends since 2009. In the area of print media is also the bimonthly women's football magazine has established itself on the market that treats exclusively national and international women's football. Various national dailies report in their sports sections on games and events in the catchment area befindlicher clubs.
In the WWW, there is also various, primarily volunteer-run sites and blogs that deal specifically with women's soccer.
The proportion of foreign players is in contrast to the men's Bundesliga rather low. In the season 2011/12 were 65 players from 21 countries ( the German players excluded) in the Bundesliga under contract, had some Bundesliga clubs long time no foreign players in their squads. As the Bundesliga is regarded as one of the strongest leagues in the world, it is very attractive for foreign players. Some Bundesliga now have approximately one third foreign players in the squad.
Foreign veteran of the league was the Dane Louise Hansen from 1 FFC Frankfurt, which was active in the Bundesliga from 1994 to 2008. 2012, with Genoveva Añonma the first time a foreign player scorer.
Since the 2006/07 season, the Bundesliga club may not have more than three non-EU foreigners in their squad.
- Highest score achieved: 1 FFC Frankfurt ( 63 points, season 2004/ 05)
- Highest score of a runners-up: 1st FFC Frankfurt ( 57 points, season 2003/ 04, 2010/11)
- The biggest advantage of a Master: FCR Duisburg (15 points, season 1999 /2000)
- Lowest score: 1 FC Neukölln (0 points in 18 games, season 1990 /91), FFC Brauweiler Pulheim (0 points in 22 games, season 2006/2007)
- Highest score of a Absteigers: FFC Heike Rheine ( 22 points, season 1998 /99)
- Lowest score of a non Absteigers: FFC Brauweiler Pulheim ( 13 points, season 2005/ 06)
- Biggest improvement in two seasons: FCR Duisburg ( 24 points, season 2004/ 05)
- The largest deterioration in two seasons: FSV Frankfurt (-27 points, season 1998 /99)
- Biggest win: 1st FFC Frankfurt - FSV Frankfurt 17:0 ( 2005/ 06)
- First goal in the Bundesliga: Iris Taaken (SV Wilhelmshaven )
- Most goals in a match by one player: Heidi Mohr ( TuS Niedernkirchen, 7 Goals, March 3, 1991 against the SG Praunheim )
- Fastest Goal: Michaela Hetke (FFC Heike Rheine, 11 seconds in 1998 against FSV Frankfurt)
- The longest without conceding a goal: Katja Kraus ( FSV Frankfurt 1314 minutes 1996/97 season )