As a cadenza in the concerto is a musical improvisation of a soloist, usually referred to at the end of the first movement of an instrumental concerto. The cadence is the soloist the opportunity to display his virtuosity on the instrument.
In the Classical era, the cadence was usually initiated by the accompanying orchestra with a six-four chord and often ended by the soloist with a trill on the leading tone to the dominant seventh chord, and then the conductor of the orchestra was used with the tonic on the final turn again.
Until the time of Ludwig van Beethoven into the cadence was often improvised, that is, the soloist not only showed his skills on the instrument, but also presented itself as an improviser. Consequently, scores and piano editions of the concerts from this time are not provided with a certain cadence.
Some later soloists attributed to the developed of them cadences, which are separately erwerblich today. For example, the pianist Edwin Fischer and Fazıl Say have written such to the piano concertos by Mozart some cadenzas for the piano concertos of Beethoven and the pianist Andor Foldes.
While Mozart for the least of his piano concertos wrote cadenzas Beethoven composed already for all five piano concertos at least one cadence. For his fourth piano concerto he provides two cadenzas to choose from.
In the Romantic era composers were increasingly have to mitzukomponieren the cadences of her concerts. They are then listed in scores and piano editions and played accordingly in each case identical.
The compose your cadence presents with regard to the respective underlying plant a special challenge: The cadence should respect the character of the work, for example, acts in a typical concert of Viennese classical one ajar to the romantic music cadence hardly appropriate. The fact that such rules can be treatable, Ludwig van Beethoven showed himself: for his Piano Concerto No. 2 in B- flat major, Op 19 (which he composed before the first in C major, Op 15), he wrote a the " middle style " committed cadenza, which deliberately represents a stylistic break with the rest of the concert and precisely by building up a voltage. There should be at least the main theme in the cadenza - are incorporated - for a distinctive thematic dualism topics.
- Part of a musical form
- Music History
- Musical improvisation