- Quechua language family Wampuy ( Quechua II) Yunkay ( Quechua II a) Cajamarca Quechua
Qvc, queer ( macro language )
Cajamarca Quechua ( Quechua: Kashamarka Runashimi, also Kichwa or Linwa, Spanish: Quechua Cajamarquino ) is a variety of Quechua, which is spoken in a linguistic island in the Peruvian department of Cajamarca.
The Quechua in Cajamarca, which was never spoken in the region, probably goes back to resettlers groups ( mitmaq ) in Inca times. In the case of the place Porcón this should be KANARI from present-day Ecuador, while Chetilla should go back to settlers from Chachapoyas.
While the adjacent non- related Culli language became extinct in the first half of the 20th century, when Cajamarca Quechua a sharp decline of the language has been used in the second half of the century.
The first dictionary to Cajamarca Quechua grammar and were issued in 1976 by Felix Quesada on behalf of the Peruvian government. However, most of the material on this Quechua variant comes from David Coombs from the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL International ), who lived with his wife Heidi as Wycliffe Bible Translators from 1973 to 2012 in the region. On the activities of Mr. and Mrs. Coombs along with Quechua-speaking pastors also published in 2005 a translation of the New Testament goes back.
On March 15 In 1986, the region's Indigenous Regional Academy of the Quechua Language in Cajamarca ( Academia Regional del Idioma de Cajamarca Quechua, ARIQC ), which the Quechua " reclaim, recover and receive " will, through teaching, research and dissemination the language. A clear focal point is in Quechua lessons.
The Cajamarca Quechua has the old Quechua sound inventory largely preserved, including the retroflex ch [ ĉ ]. Anlautendes [h ] is silent, however, so that this, found sound, expressed with "j" only in Spanish loanwords. As common with other northern Peruvian Quechua varieties plural forms of the verb are formed by appending " llapa ".
Quesada used 1976 orthography, which is similar to the other then issued under Juan Velasco Alvarado dictionaries and grammars for the regional Quechua variants and until today propagated by the AMLQ in Cusco spelling five vowels (a, e, i, o, u) included in the consonants but as this was broadly in line today Quechua conventions. Retro Flexes ch but was - as well as by Rodolfo Palomino Cerrón in Wanka Quechua grammar - rendered " tr", which led to inaccuracies in loanwords from Spanish as trabajay. It was also not phonemic b, d, g in Quechua words - allophones of p, t, k after nasals - with b, d, g reproduced. The Quechua Academy Cajamarca used today - the Quechua phonology and thus modern orthographies accordingly - only three vowels (a, i, u ), writes as in modern Kichwa orthography np, nt, nk for mb, nd, ng and are retro flexes with ch ch ' again, not to be confused with the plosive ch' in Southern Quechua. In loanwords from Spanish spellings occur also with b, d, g. SIL International, in turn, used in his writings Quechua five vowels and mb, nd, ng, so it holds almost Félix Quesada's writing from 1976, but writes ch ' for retro flexes ch.
Today's sociolinguistic situation
The Cajamarca Quechua is currently exposed to a rapid displacement by the Spanish and adheres only still in the communities Chetilla and Porcón in the province of Cajamarca, where, however, the children also increasingly speak only Spanish. Due to the low prestige of the indigenous language of the data on the number of speakers from censuses are much lower than the likely actual number. Thus, the figures fluctuate between under 10,000 and over 30,000 speakers.
The most important institution that advocates the Quechua language in Cajamarca, is founded on March 15, 1987 Local Academy of the Quechua language in Cajamarca ( Academia Regional del Idioma de Cajamarca Quechua, ARIQC; present Chairman: Mr. Dolores Ayay Chilón ) with Based in the city of Cajamarca, which is almost exclusively supported by regional Quechua and offers in addition to their commitment to intercultural bilingual education in schools (EIB ) under their responsibility instruction in Quechua as a second language, free for children aged 6-12 years. So they emulated in already hispanisierten places, including eg Khamis and Cushunga, a revitalization of the Quechua. Recently, the Cajamarca Quechua is therefore occasionally offered on the basis of this commitment as a subject in schools. The state authorities threw Academy President Ayay contrast, in early 2011, contrary to official statements about EIB to do anything to preserve the Quechua or the spoken also in the department of Aguaruna language ( Awajún ) and the Academy to deny any support, on the contrary, would rather not today teachers suppress the use of Quechua in Chetilla and Porcón. In stark contrast to the ignorance of the Peruvian elites towards indigenous languages stand a lot of interest from abroad in the Cajamarca Quechua. So learned 2009/2010 50 interested parties from Germany, France, the USA, Finland, England, Russia, Ecuador, Belgium and the Netherlands in courses of the Academy rapidly communication skills in Cajamarca Quechua.
However, even in national Quechua contexts suggested the regional Quechua Academy against lack of prestige of the " regional dialect ": So there were attempts by the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua in Cusco, to build a competitive Academy in the form of a "regional branch ". In contrast, the ARIQC works with Kichwa organizations from Ecuador, which in his own words an understanding using currently own Kichwa variant should be no problem.
There are also reports of hostility to the Cajamarca Quechua in Protestant churches. In 2002, for not only traditional clothes and musical instruments, but also the use of Quechua are socially ostracized in the parish of Adventists in Alto Porcón according to a survey of Arana Zegarra. The author cites the oral testimony of an employee of a local radio station, which was attacked repeatedly by Adventistenpastor of Porcón Bajo and former mayor of Porcón Alto because he made quechuasprachige radio broadcasts, and on the grounds that "all people think in Porcón were Quechua Indians ". Unlike students in other parts of Porcón the Adventist students from Porcón Alto reject any Quechua lessons and ask instead, reinforced teaching of English, as for work in the - highly controversial, as highly polluting - mine Yanacocha finally English 'm needed. From 726 people in Granja Porcón are 81 % Catholic, while all the comrades of the "Cooperative Jerusalem" ( Granja Porcón ), ie those with the economic power, belonging to the Evangelical Free Church.
From rejection of Quechua in evangelical churches in the 1980s reported Heidi Coombs of SIL International. In the belief that such is not the goal of evangelism would be achieved Christians presented to Coombs counter this attitude by public readings of biblical texts in Quechua in Chetilla what many listeners the message in the first place understood. Since then, especially in connection with the translation of the New Testament, Cajamarca Quechua is according to Coombs, increasingly used in various churches, such as in readings and songs with traditional tunes.
The end of 2008 recognized the Regional Government of Cajamarca Quechua next to the Aguaruna - language and Spanish as "official language" and declared, in the institutionalization in education and administration in " oral and written form " cooperate with the regional Quechua Academy.