A caldera (Spanish for cauldron ) is a cauldron-shaped structure of volcanic origin.
Must be distinguished from:
- Maare, the vapor by volcanic explosions ( phreatomagmatic explosions ) occur and
- Volcanic craters, which denote the exit point of magma.
Calderas are formed either by explosive eruptions ( Blasts judge) or by the collapse of near-surface magma chambers of a central volcano, which have previously been discharged through outbreaks. Explosion and collapse calderas calderas are often difficult to distinguish from each other, especially as the ground of a young caldera is often obscured by flowing lava. After the lava has cooled deep calderas often fill with water and then form a caldera.
Calderas of super volcanoes can assume gigantic proportions, so the caldera of the first Yellowstone eruption was 80 km long and 55 km wide.
Is the volcano still active, can again form on the floor of a caldera volcano, as is done for example in the Vesuvius, or the Aira caldera. This emergence of a volcano on an ancient volcano is called Somma volcano. The individual stages of development are designated as follows: Ursomma - Altsomma - Jungsomma - Vesuvius Stadium ( new outbreak ).
Also calderas in calderas are observed, such as the Halemaumau Caldera on the floor of Kīlauea caldera.
Among the most important are the calderas of Mount Teide ( Tenerife), Lake Toba (Sumatra ), the Yellowstone Caldera (USA) and the Caldera of Santorini island group.
The Taburiente (La Palma), which was originally named-giving is, geologically probably not a caldera, but produced by later erosion.
- Africa Pico de Fogo ( Fogo, Cape Verde )
- Ngorongoro (Tanzania )
- Trou au Natron (Chad)
- Waw an Namus - (Libya)
- Aira Caldera ( Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan)
- Aso ( Kumamoto, Japan)
- Batur (Bali, Indonesia)
- Bromo (Java, Indonesia)
- Kikai Caldera ( Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan)
- Krakatau, Indonesia
- Kurilensee ( Kamchatka, Russia)
- Nemrut (Turkey)
- Pinatubo ( Luzon, Philippines)
- Taal ( Luzon, Philippines)
- Lake Toba (Sumatra, Indonesia)
- Tambora ( Sumbawa, Indonesia)
- Tao Rusyr caldera ( Onekotan, Russia)
- Towada ( Aomori Prefecture, Japan)
- Tazawa ( Akita Prefecture, Japan)
- North America Mount Aniakchak (Alaska, USA)
- Crater Lake ( Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA )
- Kīlauea (Hawaii, United States is located geographically in the Polynesian triangle and is part of the Pacific Plate )
- Moku'āweoweo caldera on Mauna Loa (Hawaii, United States is located geographically in the Polynesian triangle and is part of the Pacific Plate )
- Mount Katmai (Alaska, USA)
- La - Garita Caldera (Colorado, USA)
- Long Valley (California, USA)
- Newberry Caldera (Oregon, USA)
- Mount Okmok (Alaska, USA)
- Valles Caldera (New Mexico, USA)
- Yellowstone ( Wyoming, USA)
- Masaya, Nicaragua
- Lake Atitlan, Guatemala
- Askja ( Iceland )
- Krafla ( Iceland )
- Katla ( Iceland )
- Campi Flegrei (Italy )
- Lake Bolsena (Italy )
- Lake Bracciano (Italy )
- Laacher See ( Eifel, Germany )
- Santorini (Greece )
- Las Cañadas of Teide (Tenerife, Spain, Canary Islands, belongs geographically to Africa)
- Taburiente (La Palma, Spain, Canary Islands belongs geographically to Africa)
- Lagoa do Fogo, Sao Miguel (Azores, Portugal)
- Cabeço Gordo, on Faial Island ( Azores, Portugal)
- Taupo ( New Zealand)
- Mount Warning (Australia)
- Blue Lake (South Australia)
- Ambrym (Vanuatu)
- Kuwae (Vanuatu)
On various celestial bodies in the solar system that have a past or recent volcanism, caldera structures have been found on gained by spacecraft recordings, some of which are significantly larger than terrestrial calderas. On the volcanically active Jovian moon Io hundreds calderas were discovered, having the largest diameter of up to 400 km.
- Mars Caldera of Olympus Mons
- Caldera of Maat Mons
- Prometheus Caldera