Caleta Olivia is a city in southern Argentina, in the extreme north of the province of Santa Cruz. The city is situated on a bay of the Golfo San Jorge on the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, and now has about 37,000 inhabitants. This makes it the second largest city of the province and is the most populous of the department Deseado. Due to its location near the border with the province of Chubut (50 km) it is virtually the gateway to the province of Santa Cruz.
The most important internal migration flows reached Caleta Olivia from the provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja and Salta. 1973 resulted in a count that 70 percent of the population were descendants of Catamarqueños. The migration from the north- west of the country began in the 1950s, 25 years before the first migrants from the north settled in Comodoro Rivadavia. The reasons for migration were in the discovery of an oil field, the jobs promised that were not available in their home in the northwest of the country. Much of the culture of the Northwest was preserved by the new citizens of Patagonia, like taking care of a home garden for their own use, the cult of the Virgen del Valle and the musical folklore of the Northwest. The most important external flows of migrants came from Spain and Italy. Although they did not reach the numerical strength of the migration from the north- west, they reached a significant impact through their social and commercial activities.
Caleta Olivia was founded on November 20, 1901 by the captain of the steamboat Guardia Nacional, Guttero. He discovered a small bay, which he named after his wife Oliva. This happened at the time of construction of the telegraph line to Comodoro Rivadavia. Guttero was employed in the ship transportation of poles and cables. Caleta Olivia evolved very slowly. 1947, the small town, after the former census, 161 inhabitants. From 1947-1991, the population increased to 27 896.
The dominant industry in Caleta Olivia is the oil production that began in 1944 by the discovery of high-yielding oil field and the city gave a rapid population growth end of the 20th century. Many immigrants from the northern provinces of Argentina and Chile from altered as the cultural image of the pre- European-influenced city.
- El Gorosito. The huge monument El Gorosito represents an oil tap aufdrehenden workers, an indication of the importance of this industry for the city. Its north -looking view reminds the rest of the country to the contribution to the welfare of Patagonia in Argentina through its oil wells. The monument was carried out after 1958 by the sculptor Pablo Daniel Sánchez and the topographer José Cifuentes.
- Museo del Hombre y su entorno. The museum shows the life context of the Native Americans and the subsequent colonizers. The collection shows bows and arrows, knives, a replica of an old apartment with their furnishings and pictures of the first colonizers in Caleta Olivia; also a collection of diaries since 1982.
- Mirador de la Ciudad (2 km northeast of the city center ). Vantage point with panoramic views of the city, to Comodoro Rivadavia.
- La Lobería (about 35 km north of the city on the Ruta Nacional 3). Seal slaughter of the 1930s, where seals and whales were gutted, to get at the Tran.