Calumet (pipe)

The Peace Pipe ( Lakota: Chanunpa Wakan, Cheyenne: He'ohko ) or Calumet ( northern French calyme "pipes pipe plant" such as Symphoricarpos albus) is a ritual pipe used in North American Indians.


In außerindianischer reception pipe of peace is a common symbol for a dispute settlement. The peace pipe was formerly called " Sacred Pipe " and served several indigenous ethnic groups, such as the Lakota and Cheyenne Indians, to prayer. The " Sacred Pipe " was smoked and peace accounts, " sealing " of friendships and during the conclusion of negotiations, transactions and contracts. Therefore shaped the white settlers who came into contact with the ritual in these contexts, the term peace pipe.


The legend of the Lakota after it was given to the people by the White Buffalo Calf Woman ( Whope ), together with the seven rites. In keeping with the tradition symbolizes the whistle man standing on the axis of the world. The bowl stands for Mother Earth, the pipe stem to the human ego and the evolutionary path of man. It is usually cut from Catlinit, mudstone from the sacred quarries in present-day Minnesota. The pipe stem is made from the wood of the white ash, which represents the entire plant kingdom. In the union of these forces increases with the smoke, the soul, the prayer of the people to the Great Spirit. The pipe is in this idea is an umbilical cord that connects the people with the universe.


During the stopper of the whistle sweet grass and sage are burned. The smoke should attract positive and negative energy and drive away evil spirits. The Sacred Pipe is drawn westward from north to south and from east through the smoke and held ( west, north, east, south, above / heaven and below / earth) in all six directions clockwise. Then it is on fire and there are four trains smoked for the grandfathers of the four cardinal directions. It is then, again passed clockwise around the circle of those gathered.

Pipe bag

An important ritual object is also the pipe bag that stores positive and negative energies, in the opinion of the Lakota and the whistle stops so in a constant energy field. Due to the fringes, which can reach the earth, earth forces are absorbed and passed into the bag.

The Urpfeife will together with various objects, for example - stored first made ​​by people whistle in a medicine bag, and protected by a designated guardian - according to the tradition of the Lakota. The current, 19th guardian, Arvol Looking Horse, they kept with other sacred objects in a purpose built octagonal house. The bag is shown only under special ritual arrangements and on special occasions, such as after the sun dance in August 1997 to the public.


As with the other ceremonies awareness of wholeness, of circular processes and of the connection of the poles is also an essential element in the peace pipe.