Canine degenerative myelopathy
As Degenerative myelopathy of the dogs we group together a series of slow running of neurological diseases associated with destruction ( degeneration, D after VETAMIN D organization ) of the spinal cord (Greek μύελος - myelos ) go hand in hand. These diseases are associated with slowly progressive movement disorder of the hindquarters and are not painful. Treatment is not very promising.
The Degenerative myelopathy of the dogs can be according to the age distribution into two main groups into which the old dogs and the young dogs.
Degenerative myelopathy older dogs
The Degenerative myelopathy older dogs is relatively common, especially it is known in German shepherd dogs. It develops from the age of 5. The reason for a mutation in the SOD1 gene is responsible. The disease is characterized by degeneration of the myelin in the breast and lumbar part of the spinal cord. This will gradually develop uncoordinated movements of the hindquarters, a disturbed self-perception and impaired reflexes. The disease is not painful.
The diagnosis most often a process of elimination, it can be considered only after autopsy as safe. Above all, a herniated disc and a Fibrokartilaginöse embolism (both occur acutely ), cauda equina syndrome and wobbler syndrome (X-ray, myelography ), and finally tumors of the spinal cord must be excluded. In the spinal fluid may be a slight increase in the protein content occur. A magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis, is in veterinary medicine but rarely available. Typical and important for the differentiation from other diseases, degenerative myelopathy runs painless.
With physiotherapy, daily walking or swimming may be trying to stop the muscle loss. Treatment tests were conducted with prednisolone, aminocaproic acid, N-acetylcysteine, vitamin E, vitamin C and vitamin B complex performed. All medications show according to a recent study, no increased activity compared with physiotherapy and could not stop the disease process. The prognosis is therefore poor and often remains only euthanasia to spare the diseased animal unnecessary suffering.
Degenerative myelopathy of young dogs
In contrast to Degenerative myelopathy older dogs Degenerative myelopathy of young dogs in total are very rare. They can not be treated all and have a poor prognosis. The differential diagnosis mainly congenital malformations of spinal cord ( syringomyelia, hydromyelia ) and infectious diseases ( toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, distemper ) must be taken into account in these diseases.
The ataxia and myelopathy of the Terrier ( Hereditary ataxia) comes with Fox Terrier and Jack Russell Terrier and Parson Russell Terrier in front. Here occurs a reduction of the white matter in the cervical and thoracic region of the spinal cord. It develops at age 2-6 months and is associated with wide overhanging movements ( hypermetric ) of the front legs, muscle tremors and breitbeiniger position of the hind legs. The animals tend to fall over and can not stand up by himself. When Jack Russell or Parson Russell Terrier, it is also caused injury to the auditory nerve with increasing deafness.
The Hound ataxia occurs with Beagle and English Foxhound. The cause of a vast feeding rumen is discussed. It arises in the 2nd - 7th Age as a result of degeneration of the white matter in the dorsal cord and the gray matter in the brain stem and is reflected in movement disorders, spasticity and reduced Pannikulusreflex.
The Afghanenmyelopathie is probably a hereditary degeneration of the white matter ( leukodystrophy ) in the cervical and dorsal cord with Afghans. It arises in the first year of life with paralysis and develops within a few weeks to a complete paralysis of the four limbs ( quadriplegia ).
Degenerative myelopathy of the toy poodle is a probably congenital demyelination of the spinal cord and midbrain. With the 2nd to 4th month of life affected Toy Poodle develop increasingly paresis, which can eventually lead to quadriplegia.
The Leukoenzephalomyelopathie of the Rottweiler is a probably hereditary demyelination of the entire central nervous system, most in the spinal cord and brain stem, with Rottweilers. It develops within the first three years of life as a progressive ataxia. The spinal reflexes remain intact. Within six months, affected animals can not get up and stand.
The Dalmatian leukodystrophy is a hereditary disease with demyelination occurring in Dalmatians white matter and atrophy of the cerebrum with enlargement of the cerebral ventricles. From the 3rd month of life blurred vision and ataxia develop. The disease quickly leads to loss of stamina.
The fibrinoid leukodystrophy ( Alexander's disease) is a rare disease occurring in Labrador Retrievers, Scottish Terriers and Miniature Poodles. The cause is unknown. The disease leads to degeneration of the astrocytes. It starts between the third and sixth month of life with hindquarters paresis, ataxia and progressive weakness. It can also behavioral changes and seizures occur in Scottish Terriers.
The axonopathy of the Lab is occurring in Labrador Retrievers degeneration of the white matter. It begins with background Hand weakness already in the puppy stage and develops into distinct Hypermetrien with tendency to fall over.
Spinal muscular atrophy ( Stockard disease) is a degenerative disease of the gray matter, especially the motoneurons. It occurs in Rottweilers, German Mastiff, Doberman, English Pointer, Epagneul Breton and Lapphund. When Epagneul Breton an autosomal dominant inheritance has been demonstrated. The disease begins in puppyhood with atrophy of the back muscles, and later develop paresis or even paralysis. In Rottweilers a megaesophagus may develop (see also Spinal Muscular Atrophy of man).
The necrotizing myelopathy of the Kooiker Dog is occurring within the first three months of life in Kooiker dogs degeneration of the white matter, especially in the cervical cord. It manifests itself in increased reflexes and rapidly progressive paralysis.
The progressive degeneration of the Ibiza is a dog kicking with the first steps in Ibiza puppies in appearance progressive paralysis. It begins at the hindquarters and then accesses via the forequarters. Spasticity and Dysmetrien added, and occasionally seizures are observed.