36.1825 - 6.0327777777778Koordinaten: 36 ° 10 ' 57 "N, 6 ° 1' 58 " W
The Cape Trafalgar ( Spanish / Portuguese Cabo Trafalgar; Latin promontory Iunonis; Arab رأس الطرف الأغر, DMG ra ʾ s aṭ - Taraf al - ʾ agar, probably from رأس الطرف الغرب, DMG ra ʾ s aṭ - Taraf al - Garb, Cape of the West ') is south of the Andalusian province of Cádiz ( Spain), about 40 km southeast of the provincial capital Cádiz, at the northwestern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The elevation at the headland, the tombolo de Trafalgar, is protected as a national monument Spanish.
The headland consists of a fixed collection of more than 6 m height, 400 m long in east -west direction and 400 meters in width. Behind it are sandy beaches, dunes and a flat, often falling dry lagoon.
The solid material of the survey consists firstly of geologically young sandstone with abundant admixture of lime from the casings of shells and snails. This material is of 100,000 years and older. In addition, silt comes with an age of 90,000 years and younger.
As with the decay of the last Ice Age 16000-6500 years ago rise in sea level, the hill was initially a small, offshore island to the mainland. Offshore water currents on both sides of the island were then stored over time from the sandbar that connects it to the mainland now.
The sea also created the structures in the rock material that are at Cape Trafalgar, as observed in many other parts of the Spanish coast:
- Salty water penetrates the porous rock, thereby crystallize salt grains from. They exert pressure on the surrounding rock, and ensure the formation of cracks. If the crystals are washed out again, only into small cavities, through them and the cracks erosion is promoted, it creates the typical spongy rough - fine structure of the rock surface.
- On the flat slab of rock, which is upstream of the hill, which is alternately flooded with the tide and exposed to erosion by water vortex provides for the formation of cup- like depressions, called Marmitas. Some of these wells, recognizable by the particularly uniform rounding of the edge was, however, caused by man. For the production of column material was worked out from the rock.
At the Cape the remains of a Moorish- Spanish settlement and a fish - canning workshop and a Juno Temple were discovered from Roman times.
Are the ruins of an Arab light and observation tower ( Almenara ) At the top of the cape. He was part of a whole chain of towers in this part of the coast, which date back to the 13th century.
He famously the Cape by the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805 in which the British fleet under Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined Franco-Spanish fleet and Nelson was killed. In commemoration of this event was named the Trafalgar Square in London.
Today, the Cape Trafalgar is a popular holiday destination for Spaniards and international guests. The strong winds on the Costa de la Luz make the region particularly interesting for kite surfers.