Carl Stumpf

Carl Stumpf (* April 21, 1848 in Wiesentheid, † December 25, 1936 in Berlin) was a German philosopher, psychologist and musicologist.

Life and achievements

He received his first musical instruction from his highly musical father, Judge Eugene Stumpf, further musical training took place at the high school in Kitzingen, Bamberg and in 1863 in Aschaffenburg, where he learned six instruments and taught himself to acquired knowledge of harmony and counterpoint. He studied under Franz Brentano and Rudolf Hermann Lotze. Stumpf had a decisive influence on Edmund Husserl, the founder of modern phenomenology, Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka, the co-founder of Gestalt psychology, as well as Kurt Lewin. He is also known due to its introduction of the concept of " facts " in the philosophy, which was later spread primarily by Husserl.

Stumpf was one of the first students of Franz Brentano and always remained very close to his early theories. He wrote his dissertation in 1868 under Lotze at Göttingen University and qualified as also there in 1870. Later he became increasingly interested in empirical methods in experimental psychology and was a pioneer of this new discipline. He taught at Göttingen, then became a professor in Würzburg and later in Prague, Halle, Munich and finally in Berlin, where his students Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler founded the Berlin school of Gestalt theory.

In its tonal psychology stump saw the essence of consonance in the merger. However, after a confrontation with Hugo Riemann on consonance and dissonance of three or more sounds he revised his position and led the concordance and discordance terms a. Together with his student Erich Hornbostel he founded in 1900 in Berlin Phonogram Archive, which became the starting point of ethnomusicology.

Together with his student Oskar Pfungst he solved the puzzle in 1907 to the clever Hans and thereby helped to experimental psychology to break through. In 1926 he defined on offense by Wolfgang Köhler, the term formant.

Carl Stumpf received his PhD Robert Musil, who had submitted his thesis on contribution to the assessment of doctrines of Mach on January 31, 1908.

Stump was buried in the Park Cemetery Lichterfelde in Berlin light field. The tomb is one of the graves honor the State of Berlin.


  • Since 1890: Full member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences
  • Since 1929: Member of the Order Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts.


  • Ratio of the Platonic God to the idea of ​​the good, Halle 1869
  • About the psychological origin of the idea of ​​space, 1873
  • Tonal psychology, 2 vols 1883-1890 (main station)
  • Psychology and epistemology, Munich 1891
  • Panels on the history of philosophy, Berlin 1896
  • The pseudo- Aristotelian Problems of Music, Berlin 1897
  • Opening address by the President, Prof. Dr. Carl Stumpf, Berlin, in: Third International Congress of Psychology in Munich from 4 - 7th August 1896, 1897
  • The development of thought in contemporary philosophy, speech, given on the day of the foundation of Kaiser Wilhelm Academy for Military Medical Education, December 2, 1899, Berlin 1899
  • The development of thought in contemporary philosophy, Berlin 1900
  • Tontabellen, in: Contributions to the acoustics and musicology, Issue 3/1901, pp. 139-146, plates I-IX
  • For the classification of the sciences, Berlin 1906
  • Phenomena and mental functions, In: Proceedings of the Royal Preußissischen Academy of Sciences. Philosophical and historical treatises, IV (1906 ), pp. 1-40 (2nd edition 1907)
  • The rebirth of philosophy, Berlin 1907
  • Directions and contradictions in contemporary psychology, In: International weekly journal of science, art and technology. Contributions of the "Munich Allgemeine Zeitung " of 19 October, 1907, pp. 903-914
  • From an ethical skepticism, Berlin 1908
  • The Berlin Phonogram Archive, In: International weekly journal of science, art and technology. Supplement of the "Munich Allgemeine Zeitung " of 22 February 1908 p 225-246
  • Philosophical speeches and lectures, Leipzig 1910
  • Psychological Institute, In: Lenz, M. (ed. ), History of the Royal Friedrich -Wilhelms -Universität zu Berlin, volume 3, Halle, 1910, pp. 202-207
  • Consonance and concordance In: Representatives German musicology (ed.): Festschrift for the 90th birthday Rocchus Freiherr von Liliencron, Leipzig, 1910, pp. 329-349
  • The origins of music, 1911
  • In memory of Lotze, In: Kant Studies, XXII (1917 ), Issue 1-2, pp. 1-26
  • Sensation and imagination, 1918
  • Memories of Franz Brentano, In: Krause, O. ( ed.) Franz Brentano. For the knowledge of his life and his teaching, Munich, 1919, pp. 87-149
  • Singing and speaking. In: Contributions to the acoustics and musicology, No. 9/1924, pp. 38-74
  • Phonetics and Otology, In: Contributions to the anatomy. Physiology, pathology and treatment of ear, nose and throat, 22 (1925 ), pp. 1-8
  • The speech sounds. Experimentally -phonetic studies. In addition to an annex on instrumental sounds, Berlin 1926
  • Emotion and feeling sensation, 1928
  • William James to his letters. Life - Character - Education, Berlin 1928
  • CS self-presentation in: Raymund Schmidt (eds. ): The philosophy of the present in self-presentations, Vol 5, Leipzig 1924
  • , Re-edited writings on psychology and provided with a biographical introduction by Helga jump, Frankfurt / Main 1997
  • Epistemology, Volume 1, Leipzig 1939; Reprint 2011, Pabst Science Publishers, 874 pages, ISBN 978-3-89967-740-9
  • Epistemology, Volume 2, Leipzig 1940; Reprint 2011, Pabst Science Publishers, 874 pages, ISBN 978-3-89967-740-9