Carl Troll

Carl Theodor Troll ( born December 24, 1899 in Gabersee, now a suburb of Wasserburg am Inn, † July 21, 1975 in Bonn ) was a German geographer and president of the University of Bonn. Its official botanical author abbreviation is " C.Troll ". The botanist Wilhelm Troll was his brother.


Troll was a student of Wilhelm Gymnasium Munich and joined in June 1917 with the Notreifeprüfung the army a.

From 1919 to 1922 he studied at the University of Munich, among others, biology, chemistry, geology, geography and physics. In 1921 he received his doctorate in botany and habilitated in 1925 in geography. From 1922 to 1927 he worked as an assistant at the Geographical Institute in Munich. Finally he went from 1926 to 1929 on a research trip through South America and traveled there Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, northern Chile, Panama and Peru.

In 1930 he became professor of colonial and overseas geography in Berlin. Between 1933 and 1934 he traveled to Vienna with Karl East and Southern Africa. During the years 1936-1938 he was Professor of the Department of Economic Geography at the Institute and Museum of Oceanography at the University of Berlin. In 1937 he also took part in the German Nanga Parbat Expedition in 1937 and undertook with Rudolf Schottenloher a research trip to Ethiopia.

Between 1938 and 1966 he was Professor and Director of the Department of Geography in Bonn. This was during World War II shifted in 1944 to Scheinfeld, but already returned a year later. In 1947, Carl Troll magazine geography.

From 1949 he was head of the Committee of the geography of the Emergency Association of German Science (later the German Research Foundation ) and also took up a lasting until 1959 verifier. From 1950 he took over as head of the Commission for Geological Research of the Academy of Sciences and Literature in Mainz. 1954 troll took a research trip to Mexico. Between the years 1956 and 1960, and 1964-1968 was Carl Troll Vice President of the International Geographical Union ( IGU), 1960-1964 its president. He has also held the office of councilors of the City of Bonn for the CDU 1957-1959. Between 1960 and 1961 he was rector of the University of Bonn. In 1966 he became Professor Emeritus. On July 21, 1975 Carl Troll died in Bonn at the age of 75 years due to heart failure. He was buried in Bonn Poppelsdorf cemetery.


Carl Troll coined the term landscape ecology and the concept of time of day climate. From hydrological, biological and economic data, he developed years climate maps and climate classifications in three dimensions. Is today widely known as the effective climate classification Troll / puffing that divides the earth's surface in five climatic zones (each several other subgroups ). It uses climate characteristics to distinguish the individual types of climate, namely the mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest month, the air temperature fluctuations years, the vegetation period and the precipitation / humidity range.


Carl Troll was a member of the Leopoldina (1937 ), the Bavarian Academy of Sciences ( 1942), the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences ( 1943), the Academy of Sciences and Literature (1950), the Austrian Academy of Sciences (1955) and the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences ( 1965). He also received, inter alia, 1938 Carus Medal of the Leopoldina, 1953, the Vega Medal of the Swedish Society of Anthropology and Geography, 1962, the Victoria Medal of the Royal Geographical Society and in 1964 the Albrecht Penck Medal. The Honorary Doctorate was conferred by the Troll Catholic University of Leuven and the University of Vienna. In Bonn university district Poppelsdorf the " Carl -Troll -Strasse " is named after him.


  • The unfolding movements of the flower stems and their biological significance. In: . Flora or general botanical newspaper, NF 115 (4 ), 1922, pp. 294-392 (dissertation).
  • Oceanic traits in plant cover in Central Europe. In: Free Ways comparative geography: Erich von Drygalski 60th Birthdays on February 9, 1925 dedicated by his pupils. Munich, Berlin, 1925, pp. 307-335 ( Habilitation ).
  • Africa as a raw material supplier to the global economy. In: Colonial Rundschau. H. 9/12, 1932 ( together with Fritz Lange, Elsa Gerth ).
  • The German colonial problem on the basis of an East African Expedition 1933/34. Berlin 1937.
  • Colonial Geographical research and the German colonial problem. Breslau 1937.
  • Aerial view plan and environmental soil research. In: Journal of the Geographical Society of Berlin 1939 ( 7/8). Berlin, 1939, pp. 241-298.
  • Studies on the comparative geography of high mountains in the world. In: Bonner releases 21 Bonn 1941.
  • Colonial Regional Planning in Africa. In: Training and orator material of the national leadership of the Reich Colonial Federal. Berlin 1942.
  • The geographical science in Germany in the years 1933 to 1945. A critique and justification. In: Geography, 1 born 1947, pp. pp. 3-48. .
  • Facts and ideas on climate typology. In: Geographical Studies: Festschrift for the 65th birthday of Prof. Dr. Johann Sölch, presented by his students, friends and coworkers. Vienna 1951, pp. 184-202.