Carlo Buonaparte

Carlo Maria di Buonaparte, also Charles Marie Bonaparte, (* March 29, 1746 in Ajaccio, † February 24, 1785 in Montpellier) was the father of Emperor Napoleon I.


Carlo lost at the age of four years his mother Mary Saveria Paravisini ( 1715-1750 ). At seventeen he lost his father Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte ( 1713-1763 ). His brother, the archdeacon Lucciano Bonaparte (1718-1791), already took care of Carlo and sent him to Corte for training.

As Genoese Corsican and resistance fighter

In Corte he fell Pascal Paoli, the Corsican leader on. On his advice Carlo studied from 1762 at the University of Pisa Jura, but interrupted in 1764 to study so that he could stop the hand of Letizia Ramolino. On June 2, 1764, they married in Ajaccio.

Not long after his marriage sought Pascal Paoli, the leader of up to a few Genoese controlled cities virtually independent of Corsica, in him a legal adviser and Carlo di Buonaparte worked mainly on the Corsican Constitution. At 20 he was Paoli's secretary and was sent as a special envoy to Rome to promote the independence of Corsica. Corsica was a papal fief to Genoa. However, the Vatican now saw from the cleverness intervention Buonaparte of retaliation against the Corsicans.

After the Genoese had sold the island on May 15, 1768 France, Paoli fought against the French, and Carlo di Buonaparte joined them, with his pregnant wife together with their son Giuseppe accompanied him to the mountains. As Captain of a company of partisans was Carlo di Buonaparte in an attack on Borgo make about 500 prisoners and force of the French supreme commander Chauvelin a ceasefire until winter.

A year later landed a much larger French army - 45 battalions of infantry, several artillery batteries and three cavalry regiments - under the command of Count Vaux. When Paoli was defeated at Ponte Novo on May 9, 1769, Carlo di Buonaparte held the resistance on the second highest mountain in Corsica, Monte Rotondo - upright, two more weeks until his May 23, a French envoy - they lived in a cave an invitation to negotiations with Count Vaux brought.

Carlo di Buonaparte learned from taking Paolis capital Corte and surrender Paolis. In Corte him and all freedom fighters Count Vaux proposed a peace with amnesty and promised that France would protect the Corsican identity and promote ways of life and prosperity of Corsica. Since he had a family to feed, Buonaparte finally threw up and went not, as Paoli into exile in England, but remained in Ajaccio, where he received back all his goods.

As a Frenchman,

As a son on August 15, 1769 - a Frenchman - was born, they named him after a fallen in battle uncle - Corsican Nabulione - Napoleone. Buonaparte quickly finished his studies in Pisa and performed on December 11, 1769 the oath of a French lawyer to work as such. Besides, he also took care not to agriculture. On May 10, 1771 he became a judge in the district of Ajaccio, but continued to work as a lawyer and incidentally in his fields. During this time, Bonaparte won a strenuous process itself to the publication of Letizia's dowry, which led to a foreclosure sale of natural history.

On September 13, 1771 it reached a French nobility recognition with the associated privileges. In the records he is out there as Charles -Marie de Buonaparte. Since he befitting clothed in velvet and silk, he got the nickname " Buonaparte il Magnifico " ( the Magnificent ). In 1772, he won a seat on the Council of 12 nobles, the state parliament and influential self-governing body of Corsica. 1778, he was honored, in a three - able delegation - he for the nobility - King Louis XVI. to visit the Palace of Versailles, where he both with the king and with Marie Antoinette spoke on March 10, 1779 the loyalty of Corsica expressed, but also spoke of concerns and problems of the island.

In his last years, he joined the Corsican parliament for the togetherness of Corsica to France - and thus against a return Paolis or a move to England. When he fell ill in 1784, he was examined in Paris by the personal physician to the Queen, but all treatments did not help. On a new journey that should go to Paris at the ministers, he was so ill that he went on the advice of doctors to medical school to Montpellier. With 39 years died in Charles -Marie de Bonaparte on 24 February 1785 in the presence of his son Joseph, of stomach cancer in Montpellier, where he was buried first. The son Louis left him in 1803, buried in agreement with Letizia and Joseph and against the will of Napoleon, on Louis ' tenure at Saint -Leu. 1951, the remains were solemnly brought to Ajaccio.


With his wife Letizia he had eight infancy surviving sons and daughters. The first two children died early, then came Joseph and Napoleon. After two miscarriages, the other children followed. Apart from the last three who were still too young to Charles -Marie de Buonaparte took care of the career of his children. Important for whose education was certainly that Buonaparte built the largest private library in Corsica and the children with books were great. Joseph Bonaparte was to be a clergyman originally, but was like his father a lawyer. Napoléon was working on his Civil Code (Code Napoléon ) with itself. Lucien Bonaparte laid several times before draft constitutions for France, included the features of Corsican Paoli Constitution.

In the reign of Louis XVI. there were scholarships for the children of the poorer nobility deserved. By Charles Bonaparte's efforts in agriculture of Corsica, he was considered worthy. Due to the financial stress of swamp draining as poor enough so that the sons of Joseph and Napoleon, later also Lucien, have benefited from these scholarships

  • Joseph Bonaparte, (1768-1844), born as Giuseppe
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, (1769-1821), born as Nabulione / Napoleone
  • Lucien Bonaparte, (1775-1840), born as Lucciano
  • Elisa Bonaparte, (1777-1820), born Marianna / Maria - Anna
  • Louis Bonaparte, (1779-1846), born as Luigi
  • Pauline Bonaparte, (1780-1825), born as Maria- Paola
  • Caroline Bonaparte, (1782-1839), born as Maria Annunziata
  • Jérôme Bonaparte, (1784-1860), born Girolamo


The Buonaparte family, which is attributable to the small Corsican nobility, came originally from Tuscany and came in the 16th century by the Genoese colonization of Corsica. Under Carlo di Buonaparte it was not poor, although the conditions were not exactly luxurious, with increasing number of children. With the needle recognition and the associated tax breaks you could service and nanny, at times even a cook afford. The judge brought up only a small proportion of annual income, principal merit came from agriculture, through more fields and vineyards. Two apartments, a shop, the usage charges a grain mill and a kiln brought more income.

When draining a salty swamp Carlo di Buonaparte expended something, because the state money failed to materialize first. Among other things, he led with his friend, the military governor of Corsica, Count Marboeuf, the potato on the island one. Marboeuf was patron of the family and supported them financially for the children's education.

Amazingly, he was of his family later almost hushed. When the city of Montpellier wanted to put a monument to him twenty years after his death, forbade Napoleon, then First Consul, on the grounds that he had been too long dead