Castro culture (Portuguese: Cultura Castreja, Galician: Cultura Castrexa, Spanish: Cultura Castreña ) is the ancient archaeological term for the Iron Age culture of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula from the end of the Bronze Age ( 1st millennium BC) until the 1st century BC. Meanwhile, the name is disputed.
The most characteristic and therefore eponymous feature of this culture were the hilltop and fortified with a rampart settlements, which are called Castro (from Latin castrum ) and Citânias. Places of this kind were found in an area that extends east to the Río Cares and the south to the Duero. Other features include, inter alia, the Lusitanian warrior statue and standing and seated male and female statues of gods ( Sendim, xinco de Limia ), eddy wheels as a Swastika - elements (Santa terga ), Omphaloi, Pedra Formosa and torc.
The Ave region, located in the center of this culture, has greater Castro, the Citânias or Cividades ( from Lat. Civitas ) on. (see a Citânia de Sanfins or Cividade de Terroso )
The Castro culture began at the end of the Bronze Age to develop due to cultural influences of Central European and Mediterranean cultures. In the subsequent period, which ranged BC to the 5th century, the Castro spread from south to north and from the coast into the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. This expansion continued until the 2nd century BC, the influence of the Roman Empire was stronger. The final demise was sealed by the Roman conquest and the establishment of the province Gallaecia. In the 4th century AD, the Castro culture had disappeared.
The economy of the Castro culture was based essentially on agriculture, hunting and fishing.
In addition, the mining of gold, iron, copper, tin and lead, played an important role. The mostly low-grade ores were refined by the Castro- metallurgists and made into tools, jewelry and other things.
Furthermore, ceramic works and cutting gems have survived.
As weapons swords and daggers were primarily created and used.
Examples of Castro
- Castro de Coaña, Asturias, Spain
- Castro de Noega - Gijón, Asturias, Spain
- Castro de Baroña, Galicia, Spain
- Castro de Trona, Galicia, Spain
- Los Cogotas, Ávila, Castile and Leon, Spain
- La Mesa De Miranda, Kastlien - Leon, Spain
- Cividade de Terroso Portugal
- Castro de Sabroso, Portugal
- Citânia de Briteiros, Portugal
- Citânia de Sanfins, Portugal
- Paços de Ferreira, Portugal
- Carvalhelhos Castro, Portugal
Castro de São Lourenço in Esposende, Portugal
Cividade de Terroso tem mais in Póvoa de Varzim
Detail of the Castro of Trona, Pías, Ponteareas, Pontevedra