Chacmultún is an archaeological site of the Maya in the Mexican state of Yucatán.
In the Maya language of Yucatan Chacmultún means " hill of red stones ." As in many cases in the Mesoamerican culture area, it is unknown whether the place in its heyday had the same name.
Chacmultún (village and ruins ) located about 128 km ( driving distance ) south of Mérida and about 7 kilometers south-west of the modern town Tekax. Several other sites in the Puuc region ( Labná, Xlapak, Sayil ) are a maximum of 50 kilometers to the west.
Little is known about the early history Chacmultúns - you dated the first traces of settlement to about 300 AD Most of the sites in the Puuc region were settled late or started relatively late (7th / 8th century AD). with the construction of cities with stone temples and palaces. The place was finally abandoned around 1200 AD - only hunters and later chicle collectors knew of the existence of the site.
The first researcher was Teobert painter who wrote a report, precise plans drew and recorded a number of excellent photographs. A detailed investigation comes a short time later by Edward Thompson. Mention should also provide a short study of Antonio Benavides, but without the upper buildings of Xeth pool even mentioning. After sporadic consolidations since about 2000 excavations take place mainly at the lower levels of the central group and the ball court.
The Puuc zone attributable to ruin site is formed by four spatially distant from each Group: The central group ( grupo central) close to the eponymous site for the group Chacmultún; beyond the parking lot of the ball court; further south, the group Cabalpak and to the east on a steep hill, the group Xeth pool. Common to all groups, the absence of a large multi-level temple pyramid - the construction of palaces etc. was clearly the focus of interest of the builders.
Chacmultún Group and Central Group
The group Chacmultún ( to them the coordinates in the header of the article relate ) is situated on a large and high terrace, leading up to the more Teppen and its southern and eastern front is formed by a series of rooms. Such a sequence of spaces is quite unique in the Mayan architecture and is otherwise only in Uxmal before.
On the surface, the large terrace is in the east along a rectangular palace building with several rooms arranged around a solid core. The building originally consisted of about 20 rooms. On the roof level on which was undoubtedly provided an additional floor, leading from the south side of a wide and from the west side to an unusually narrow stairs. Immediately next to a badly damaged wing on the north side are three portals, which are composed of only a few large stone slabs.
The facade corresponds to the classic Puuc Säulchenstil. The lower wall surface above a simple pedestal is smooth and undecorated. The inputs are partially equipped with two columns and resting on imposts. The middle cornice consists of three bands, with a serpentine motif in the center. The upper panel shows small columns with two bonds and at intervals the presentation of entrances under a smooth roof with decorations in the upper part. This refers to here may - contrary to the usual pattern - buildings with smooth stone roof. The top cornice is similar to the central design, however, are from the middle band here numerous spherical stones ( phalli? ) Out.
This building is unique with its almost square ground plan and other details. It consists essentially of a solid block with no interior wall. Only on the rear side there is a narrow entrance leading to a rear wall extending parallel to and close blind-ended passage. On the front, a wide staircase leads up to the non-built roof level. On both sides of the stairs is a room ever with easy input. The use of this massive structure is unclear.
The slightly deeper and a triptych angled building 3 comprises a total of 16 rooms; on the back wall of the space 10 there is a ( altar ) plate and poorly preserved paintings, which were interpreted as representing a procession.
Playground for ball games
Near the central group is inter alia the 'H' shaped ball court with its lateral slopes, which were intended for the rolling back of the solid rubber ball into the playing area. Another unusual feature is the rear stairway that leads down directly on one of the side playing surfaces.
The well preserved building 5 (coordinates 20 ° 10 ' 13 " N, 89 ° 20' 41 " W20.170222222222 - 89.344833333333 ) lies at the foot of a hill, located on the overlying slope severely damaged buildings lying in front with open spaces on several levels. Both sides of a wide central staircase there are three rooms; the overlying roof fronts show the usual decoration of rows of small columns in the middle of gesimsartigen projections.
With its strict axial symmetry and the rear - echelon and superimposition of the buildings of the complex Cabalpac must have offered an absolutely unique sight after its completion.
Group Xeth Pool
The group ( coordinates 20 ° 10 ' 9 " N, 89 ° 20' 20" W20.169055555556 - 89.338777777778 ) consists of several buildings that are located on the upper part of a hill and its tip and at least partially to give the impression of a multistory complex. The roof of this complex fronts Although they are organized by circumferential Cornices, but largely without decor. Some interiors of the main building have at their back wall stone benches.
Group Xeth pool, lower building
Group Xeth pool, upper building