The district of Cham [ ka ː m] is the easternmost district of the administrative region Upper Palatinate in eastern Bavaria. In the south and south-east it borders on the Lower Bavarian districts of Straubing-Bogen and rain. Other neighbors are the Upper Palatinate Regensburg counties in southwest and Schwandorf in the west and northwest.
- 3.1 Kreistag
- 3.2 District Administrators
- 3.3 Coat of Arms
- 3.4 District Partnerships
- 5.1 Highways
- 5.2 Bus and rail transport
Geographically, the county area belongs almost entirely to the large landscapes of the Upper Palatinate and the Bavarian Forest, which are separated here by the Cham-Further sink each other. The river runs through the rain circle from the southeast to the west. A geological feature is the so -called pile, a crystalline rejection across the whole Bavarian Forest. The district area is almost identical to the area of the Natural Park of the Upper Bavarian Forest.
With an area of 1511.87 km ² of the district of Cham takes among the 71 districts in Bavaria the fifth place among the seven counties of the Upper Palatinate, the first place one. The average surface area of the Bavarian districts is 985 km ².
The district of Cham associated with the planning region 11 (Regensburg). He is assisted area under the Bavarian regional funding programs, the Joint Task " Improvement of Regional Economic Structure" and Objective 3 funding territory of the European Union. At a length of 71.6 kilometers, the district of Cham bordered to the east by the Czech Plzeň Region of ( western Bohemia ). The region is therefore eligible area according to the European INTERREG and PHARE programs.
Bridge to the East
With 70 km of common border with the Czech Republic to the district of Cham comes to a bridge to the east. One is the role of bringing people together, which manifests itself in partnerships and institutions such as the cross-border pilgrimage, meeting and environmental education center "House for sowing " Neukirchen b.Hl.Blut or Jugendbildungsstätte Waldmuenchen. To cope with the challenges of the enlargement of the European Union, joint projects such as the municipal action coalitions " Agean Sea " and " Cerchov " can be performed.
The documented history in what is now the district of Cham begins in the year 748, the Regensburg monastery of St. Emmeram founded the " Cella ", the mother parish in Chammunster. Seat of the temporal rule of the Mark Chamberlin were the first Königshofbezirke Cham and Roding. The 976 as " civitas Chamma " said Cham kingdom castle with surrounding castles Runding, Haidstein, Chamerau weather field was a military center of the Mark on the border with Bohemia.
Fall Numerous villages and towns in the eleventh century; in the twelfth century, the major monasteries Reichenbach and forest Erbach were founded in Regen, which promoted the colonization of the area until the Reformation. After 1667 they became pioneers of recatholicization the Upper Palatinate.
In the Hussite Wars in the 15th century, the frontier was particularly affected, the Further Drachenstich takes up this theme in a festival on. Topic of an open air game ( " Trenck the Pandur before Waldmuenchen " ) is also the Austrian Succession War 1741-1745.
With the administrative reform in 1803 in what is now the district Cham emerged the district court districts Cham, ( with the further judicial district Furth im Wald ), Kötzting, Roding and forest Munich, which all belonged until 1817 to the rain circle. Then Cham and Furth and Kötzting came to the sub Donaukreis while Waldmuenchen Roding and remained with the rain circle (later Oberpfalz). 1838, the District Courts Cham and Furth were now heading Circle Upper Palatinate and Regensburg allocated, while the district court Kötzting remained solely with the county nunmehrigen Lower Bavaria. At the same time came in 1838 from some municipalities of the district court of Roding, the new district court Nittenau and 1852 yet another district court Falkenstein, which was, however, 1879/80 and disbanded.
1862 emerged the district offices Cham, Kötzting, Roding and Waldmuenchen from previous regional court districts, and in addition for some communes in the district Kötzting a new district court Neukirchen b. Blut was established. As of 1939, the district offices were renamed counties.
As part of local government reform in 1972, the counties Cham were Kötzting ( with the exception of the community Lohberg, this was initially assigned to the district of rain, but came in May 1978, also to the district of Cham) and forest Munich, the eastern part of the district Roding ( who came west together to form the district Schwandorf ) and some other municipalities circles as the new district of Cham, who again nearly reached so the extent of the old historical area Margraviate Cham. The territory of the district of Lower Bavaria Kötzting changed so that in the Upper Palatinate. Today, the district of Cham is the area 's largest county in the Upper Palatinate and the fifth largest in the whole of Bavaria.
With the accession of the neighboring country the Czech Republic to the European Union on 1 May 2004, the decades of foreclosure to the east was finally overcome. On 25 May 2009, the county received the loaned by the federal government entitled " City of Diversity".
The district of Cham in addition to the political parties traditionally heavy numerous regional voter communities.
The council of the district of Cham consists of 60 members and the district administrator. The municipal election held on 2 March 2008 yielded the following voting or distribution of seats with a voter turnout of 68.2 per cent ( figures in comparison to the local elections on 3 March 2002 ):
CSU, GLLW, HBL and border flag form a parliamentary group and thus have an absolute majority in the county council. In addition, FWSL and FCWG and Alliance 90/The Greens and ödp have formed a parliamentary group.
Since 20 July 2010, Franz Löffler (CSU ) District Administrator of the Cham. In the runoff election for the District on July 18, 2010, he was first elected with a vote share of 50.3 percent with a voter turnout of 38.6 per cent directly to this office. Loeffler is the third District Administrator of the Cham since the local government reform of 1972. First District of the then newly revised district was the district administrator of the former county Roding, Ernst Girmindl. All Cham district administrators have since been provided by the CSU.
Coat of arms
"Among the main plate with the Bavarian lozenges in red, the twin-towered church of silver Chammunster in side view. "
The Bavarian lozenges emphasize the centuries- long membership of the Wittelsbach territory of Upper Palatinate. The stylized rendition of the Church emphasizes the importance of the Cham area for the Christianization of the early Middle Ages.
The white and blue diamonds come from the Bavarian Forest. They were originally the colors of the Counts of Bogen, whose ownership was at the beginning of the 13th century by marriage to the Wittelsbach family. The Wittelsbach family, who ruled 750 years in Bavaria, took over their house colors.
Since 1983, a partnership with the Lichtenrader public park in Berlin- Lichtenrade.
1992, a partnership with the Saxon district of Bautzen was founded.
The district of Cham has a wide range of medium-sized economic structure in trade, commerce, industry and services. They range from traditional woodworking company to high- tech companies in the fields of mechanical engineering, electrical, plastics technology and mechatronics. A total of about 9000 companies have their base in the district of Cham, including some with over 1,000 employees.
Networks such as the Action Group " of life and economy in the district of Cham eV" or regional clusters in the fields of mechatronics and wood / forests characterize the cooperation.
The district of Cham is through the federal highways Federal Highway 16 ( Ingolstadt -Regensburg - Nittenau - Roding ), Federal Road 20 ( Straubing- Furth im Wald ), Federal Road 22 ( Bayreuth Pasture Oberviechtach -Chambertin ) and Federal Highway 85 ( Amberg- Schwandorf -Passau ) connected to the trunk road network. The nearest motorways are the A 3 (Nuremberg -Regensburg -Passau ), A 93 ( Regensburg Schwandorf Pasture farm) and A 92 (Munich -Landshut - Deggendorf ). As one of the few counties in the Bavaria district of Cham is not traversed by a highway, but the main roads are usually expanded, partly with longer three - or four-track sections.
Bus and rail transport
The main artery of the railway network in the district of Cham is the railway line Schwandorf - Cham - Furth im Wald ( Pilsen ), which was built in 1861 by AG Bayerische Ostbahnen to the border. From Schwandorf from interchanges are in Weiden, Nuremberg and Regensburg, and Munich, is possible.
The Bavarian State Railways made the city Cham more than thirty years later, to the starting point of two local railways:
From the former was produced in 1905 in Miltach with the completion of the railway line Straubing- Miltach a cross-connection of the Danube Valley to Straubing, during the continuation of Kötzting by Lam in 1893 came about through the AG Lokalbahn Lam - Kötzting. Finally, the Regentalbahn ( AOA) Blaibach the station made in 1928 to the starting point of a route to Viechtach, making the railway God cell Blaibach was completed. Regardless of the railway network thus formed was awarded by the Bavarian State Railways of the market Falkenstein in 1913 a line of Regensburg ago and the city Rotz 1915 by Bodenwoehr North over nine vorm Wald.
In addition to alex trains Vogtlandbahn of Nuremberg and Munich Schwandorf - Cham - Furth to Prague RAG operates as " Oberpfalzbahn " the passenger on the entire network of 109 km. 32 km local railways have been in 1969, 1984 and 1991 shut down:
The numbers in parentheses () refer to the length of the route in the district.
In 2002, the rail links of Oberpfalzbahn in the already existing traffic Landkreis Cham were integrated. Thus, in the district of a transport association exists with uniform tariffs on all buses and trains.
Since May 2008, the district of Cham on the first German -Czech bus Bavaria with the neighboring Czech Plzeň Region is connected.
Cities and Towns
( Population figures from December 31, 2012)
No community outdoor areas
Towns and villages of the district before the municipal reform 1971/78
Before the local government reform of the district of Cham had 50 communities ( see list below). ( The towns that still exist today are in bold ):
In the district is 162 (as of September 2013) are the Bavarian State Office for Environmental designated geological sites. See the list of geological sites in the district of Cham.
A popular homonym wordplay that has to do with the circle, the set is when I came to Cham degree, the train to Furth ford was ( continued ). The railway line in question is located in the district.