Changchun (Chinese长春/长春, long Spring ' ) is the capital of Jilin province in the northeast of the People 's Republic of China and one of the 15 sub- provincial cities in the country. It has 2,541,729 inhabitants in the city (as of 1 January 2005) and 7.12 million in the entire city.
The administrative area of Changchun has an area of 20,565 km ².
The average annual temperature is 4.9 ° C, the annual precipitation sum 616 mm. The climate is continental with cold, relatively dry winters and warm, humid summers.
At county level, Changchun consists of six districts, a circle and three independent cities together. These are:
- Chaoyang District (朝阳 区), 379 km ², 740,000 inhabitants, center, seat of the city government;
- Municipality Erdao (二 道 区), 965 km ², 390,000 inhabitants;
- City Kuancheng (宽 城区), 877 km ², 470,000 inhabitants,
- Municipality Lüyuan (绿园区), 301 km ², 570,000 inhabitants;
- City Nanguan District (南 关 区), 497 km ², 610,000 inhabitants,
- City Shuangyang District (双阳 区), 1663 km ², 380,000 inhabitants;
- Circle Nong'an (农 安县), 5221 km ², 1.12 million inhabitants,
Capital: greater community Nong'an (农 安镇);
- Dehui City (德惠 市), 3096 km ², 920,000 inhabitants;
- Jiutai City (九台 市), 2875 km ², 830,000 inhabitants;
- Yushu City (榆树市), 4691 km ², 1.23 million inhabitants.
The population figures refer to the end of 2004 and going from 7.26 million inhabitants for total of Changchun.
Ethnic composition of the total population Changchun (2000)
At the 2000 census for the entire administrative area of Changchun 7135439 inhabitants were counted.
Changchun is one of the most important industrial cities in the north of China. The city is home to steel plants and a variety of metal working operations. The vehicle serial number 1 ( First Automotive Works ) was once the largest manufacturer of cars in China and operates since 1991 together with Volkswagen / Audi and Toyota two major joint venture in the city. In 2004, the vehicle serial number 2 was inaugurated. 660,000 VW vehicles are produced each year and 9,000 people are employed in the vehicle works. A further expansion to the largest Chinese car city is planned. Since 1999, Changchun also has its own international auto show. The "China Changchun International Automobile Fair " 2009 was the largest event yet with 130 domestic and foreign exhibitors. But the carmaker Zxauto runs his sophomore here.
Another economic factor is agriculture. The area around Changchun comprises 1.1 million acres of cultivated land.
In addition, Changchun is the film capital of the People's Republic. Since 1992, the Changchun Film Festival will take place there.
In addition, Changchun is an important railway junction, leading from the connections to Russia, Korea and in many Chinese provinces. The under construction Quick links Beijing - Harbin and Dalian - Harbin to perform Changchun.
The gross national product per capita in 2003 amounted to ¥ 21,336 (about 2200 euros ). Thus, Changchun reached the 52nd place among 659 Chinese cities.
Culture and sights
A notable attraction is the Imperial Palace, where the used by the Japanese Emperor of Manchukuo, Puyi, resided.
In Changchun, there are the Jilin University ( JLU), the Northeast Normal University and the Changchun University of Science and Technology. In addition, the Jilin Huaqiao Foreign Languages Institute here is. Tassilo Küpper, 1988 was an honorary professor at Jilin University; Carl Joachim Classen was a visiting professor in Changchun.
After 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria in the Manchurian crisis and the satellite state of Manchukuo cried, the city became the capital of the state was in 1932. The name was in Xinjing ( Changchun, Chinese新 京, Pinyin Xinjing; jap shinkyō ) to New German capital, as amended. The city experienced tremendous growth and tree-lined roads and government facilities were built. In addition, here the first Japanese high-speed line of Ajia from Changchun to Dalian was built.
The Japanese settled large film companies, which initially produced mostly propaganda films.
1945, the city in Operation August Storm by the Soviet Red Army was occupied. The troops sacked the city. By 1956, the Soviet Union maintained a presence in the city and built the first automobile - manufacturing plant on. The based on a Ford Model Jiefang truck (German liberation) and the Red Flag limousines were produced here until 1987.
During the Chinese Civil War, the city was occupied in 1946 by the Kuomintang. From March to October 1948, the city was besieged by CCP troops and subsequently conquered. Here, up to one million people died, many of them starved to death. In the official Chinese historiography of the "victory" of Changchun was considered one of the most peaceful and as " bloodless " chapter of the glorious liberation struggle of the people, casualty figures were not mentioned.
1954 Changchun capital of Jilin province.
In May 1992, Li Hongzhi published here for the first time his teachings of Falun Gong.
In January 2006 the German urban planner Albert Speer Jr. was awarded the contract for the design of an automotive production facility, which will be at 120 km ² twice as large as Shanghai Anting Auto City. The settlement of 300,000 employees is included in the project is expected to complete works in ten to fifteen years. Changchun is to become a Detroit of the East according to the plans of the city government. Even now it is China's second largest automobile location.
2007 Asian Winter Games were held in Changchun.
Ecological urban expansion
China is located in one of the largest transformation processes of its history, in 2025 more 350 million people from the country to relocate to the cities. Also Changchun is expected to double its population in the next 10 to 15 years. The Planning Bureau Albert Speer & Partner, Frankfurt aM, has won the competition for an ecological extension Changchun. The resulting new districts from 2008 to get above all the function of a " car city ", ie all surfaces are subordinate to the close integration of work in the development and production area, the work-related residential and regenerative leisure. By the will of the Chinese government Changchun is the most important Schwerpunktort the fast-growing domestic automotive industry. To what extent is the concept of a vast eco-city like Shanghai Dongtan pursued here, the outstanding detailed plans will show.
The master plan provides for a typical square -scale urban grid that is about 10 km wide and 12 km long stretches and then again to absorb 300,000 inhabitants. The model city is characterized by a parkway -like double axle, broken twice by artificially directed into rivers, which are intended to ensure wide with accompanying land a good airing. All Central usable buildings and many of the emission-free workplaces are planned in the center, residential areas to the right and left of the main axis in acceptable range; this city should help to new heights again even by bicycle. The edge surface design of the planned city is expected also associated with an ecological landscape repair, ie Public Use, park -like areas or smaller forest patches instead of intensively used agricultural landscapes, but the public obstructed areas.
Changchun is twinned with the Ulsan, South Korea since 1994. There is also a partnership with the Serbian city of Novi Sad, the New Zealand Masterton and the Canadian Quebec. A city friendship from the 13th June 2006 with the city of Wolfsburg ( Germany ).
Sons and daughters of the town
- Liu Binyan (1925-2005), journalist
- Ei-ichi Negishi (* 1935), Chemist
- Hwang Sok -yong ( born 1943 ), author
- Liu Xiaobo ( born 1955 ), Chinese writers, dissidents and human rights activists
- Chen Lu (born 1976 ), figure skater
- Yang Yang ( born 1977 ), speed skater
- Li Weifeng (born 1978 ), football player
- Li Chengjiang ( born 1979 ), figure skater
- Wang Hao ( b. 1983 ), table tennis pro