The term charisma ( [ çarɪsma, çarɪsma, karɪsma or karɪsma ], from Greek χάρισμα charisma, " grace ", " donated from goodwill gift" ) is originally especially in the Judeo -Christian tradition ( Philo, the Septuagint, New Testament ) and called there by God to man a gift of, the goodwill is emphasized as the motivation of the gift by the word. The expression is then used especially in Paul for spiritual abilities.
In religion, science, the term is used on the one hand for the talent or ability to receive revelation, inspiration or enlightenment, the other - connected with religious deviance and innovation - for the creation of a separate recognized by a particular group numinous authority. In management, the concept of transformational leadership is considered as a way to operationalize this concept in practice and applied in the development of leadership skills in the context of leadership development. In sociology it means one of the three forms of domination.
On this meaning also the everyday language use of the term closes, which referred under the "charisma" of a man whose winning " charisma ".
In the New Testament and in the older Christianity charism means a gift of the Holy Spirit ( 1 Cor 12:7 EU). The charisms include wisdom tell convey knowledge, strength of faith, prophecy, healings, miracles, discernment, tongues and interpretation of tongues. With particular emphasis on some of these charisms (also: charismata ) emerged in modern times spiritual awakening movements such as Pentecostalism and the charismatic movement.
Social sciences term
In sociology, Max Weber used the term " charisma" to refer to one of the distinguished him three forms of government - in addition " of traditional " and " rational " rule, he shared a 'charismatic domination. Following Weber charisma means a social relationship of domination, which changed the social structure fundamentally, an extra- ordinary " revolutionary power ", and that as they ( " disciples " ), is regarded by the charismatic ruled, the followers.
"On the validity of charisma which decides by probation - originally always: by miracles - secured free, born of devotion in Revelation, hero worship, trust in the leader, recognition by the governed. But this is ( at genuinem charisma ) is not the legitimacy of reason, but it is the duty of virtue vocation and probation for the recognition of this quality callee. This recognition is psychologically a person born out of enthusiasm or distress and hope very personal devotion. "
The routinization of charisma: If the charismatic relationship with a duration ratio, it changes its character and becomes everyday except of traditional or rationalized ( legal ) rule (§ 11). In addition to the " people - charisma," where a " creator" replaces outmoded notions of justice or reinterpreted, however, also possible to speak of an " institutional charisma," which new institutions are created.
The political scientist Franz Neumann led in his Behemoth back the idea of legitimizing charism through the theology of Calvin. According to his analysis, the ideology of National Socialism led the charismatic power of the leader of the " folklore " back. In Democracy in Germany M. Rainer Lepsius has verified the applicability of such a declaration attempt on the Führer Adolf Hitler's state. In his work Revolution and routinization ( 1977) Dirk Kaesler the applicability of this theory to answer the question: " What will become of revolutions? " Checked; he came to the conclusion that Weber's theory of the " routinization " of charisma provides a useful analytical concept for understanding and explanation of post-revolutionary processes.
In his book, charismatics and efficiencies: portraits from 60 years of the Federal Republic of Franz Walter comparing 2009 (referring to Max Weber's distinction between charismatic and bureaucratic rule ) examples charismatic politician of German history - Konrad Adenauer, Willy Brandt, Franz Josef Strauss, Helmut Schmidt, Helmut carbon - with its efficient use of resources and antagonists: Hans Globke, Horst Ehmke, Edmund Stoiber, Rudolf Seiter and many others.
Business psychology and management theory
In economics, psychology is an approach that charisma affinity and the perception of charisma in the vicinity of narcissism represents (see Dammann, 2007). Are important here, as is " stigma " and " charisma" relate to each other (see Wolfgang Lipp ), and the possibility of social reversion or dramatization of prototypical attributes.
According to Richard Wiseman, a charismatic person has three properties:
In management science, the phenomenon charisma has long been regarded as obscure publication to, among others, JA Conger and RN Kanungo in 1987 have operationalized in an empirical study based on concrete behavioral descriptions and measurable this term. Thus, managers are perceived as charismatic, for example if you ( 1) provide an attractive and at the same time compelling vision, (2) perceive their role models, (3) challenge their employees and inspire them to special services, (4) their personal strengths and skills further develop and encourage ( 5) into independent, creative problem solving. Another operationalization of the concept of transformational leadership of BM Bass and BJ Avolio. with specific behavioral descriptions of ( charismatic ) leadership skills.
The charismatic leader lives of the employees' identification with the leader. This type of leadership brings Neubauer several advantages.
The higher degree of identification has further psychological consequences, however, can have a positive or negative impact on the organization itself. The high identification automatically generates the psychological effect of conformity. Through the self - categorization of the group creates a distinction between members and non-members. Outsiders and dissenting, non-compliant employees are excluded. Here, normative influences and influences of information can fix that promote conformity. This social group norms can become independent. This exposes the company is a risk that external information is not recorded and the group no longer thinks across divisions, so out of the box. Therefore, the responsibility of the charismatic leader is also to minimize the extent of the [ compliance ] under intentional control, and at times to intersperse external influences.
The circuit can also be thought to Lewin et. al. (1939) and his study of group dynamics are closed. The charismatic democratic leadership poses less risk of foreclosure as a charismatic, authoritarian leadership, as the guided subordinates not focus solely on the leader but also on independent thinking.