As is known in the chess endgame the final stages of a game, if only a few types of figures on the board are.
A distinction is made the playoffs all the still remaining on the board figure types, apart from the two kings:
- Elementals Matt guides: figures against nothing but a single remaining king,
- Pawn ending: only farmers,
- Women's final: Women with or without Bauer ( s)
- Rook endgame: towers with or without the farmer (s)
- Bishop ending: runner with or without Bauer ( s)
- Springer Finals: Springer with or without the farmer (s)
- Minor piece endgame: bishop and knight with farmer (s)
- Heavy figure endgame: Women and / or towers with or without Bauer ( s)
- Tower minor pieces endgame: Towers and / or minor pieces with or without farmer (s) and
- Lady minor pieces endgame: Women and / or minor pieces with or without farmer (s).
Bauer lots playoffs are also referred to as a (pure ) Figure playoffs.
The endgame is different from the previous game phases due to the reduced figure number and the active role of the Kings. If there are pawns on the board, so a king support its own farmers and attack the enemy. In the final rule has one of the players a positional or material advantage. This player is called in this phase of the game " attacker ", the other player "defenders ". The attacker attempts to win the game, while the defender seeks a draw.
Many playoffs wins the attacker in that it promotes a pawn to a queen, thereby achieving a decisive material superiority. The pawn is in this case a feasible sub-goal on the way to game profit.
Another practical part may aim to simplify by exchange for both sides. This method, a complicated to convert into a simpler position from which one knows how it is assessed is called " settlement ". While it can also be handled in the middle game, but the settlement typical of the final. There can be the match output of the remaining position to better assess, because many positions with little material have already been analyzed in detail in the final literature.
There are no more farmers on the board and is the defender material sufficiently weakened, then that Matt is the last remaining target of the attacker. A typical method, the force Matt is the handling in a playoff against the single king. The attacker must make sure that a sufficient material remains overweight on forcing Matt's him. The defender can save themselves sometimes by exploiting stalemate motifs or unwind in one inferior, but remisverheißendes material ratio. In the practical part, it can sometimes take the 50 - move rule.
Until about the end of the 1980s, the final theory (or even all types of positions ) and successive accumulation of experience in game tournaments developed empirically and relatively slowly by manual analysis of individual positions. Conducive worked here from the combination of both for suspended games and in correspondence chess. Since about the early 1990s, new insights are increasingly achieved with the help of computer programs. However, the analyzes are often so complex that they can hardly be seen through even very good chess players.
For positions with a few stones, the game results have already been calculated. Currently, all positions with up to six and seven with a few stones in endgame databases are available.
A distinction is made between theoretical playoffs, in which the output is known with certainty at both sides the best of our game, and practical playoffs, for which an accurate assessment because of the huge number of possible variants is not possible. Good players try therefore, especially in areas with limited thinking time already to simplify complex endgame positions on their familiar positions.
There is also composed endgame studies whose initial positions are not always partie likely that illustrate but certain strategic or tactical motives in trenchant solution processes.