Chicago school (architecture)
The Chicago School is an architectural style expression that originated in Chicago in the late 19th century and the first skyscrapers, then called English skyscraper = skyscraper, has spawned (today this term skyscraper a much higher building than it was then ) and early steel-frame construction in the construction of office buildings and factories began. His aesthetic is consistent with the classical modern in Europe.
In the fire of Chicago in October 1871, large parts of the then predominantly built of wood city were destroyed. Having been in previous years, the conditions for a new high-rise architecture had been developed ( fire -proof steel frame, improved establishment and security and elevator), is the architect offered the opportunity to use them here on a broad front in Chicago.
A member of the Chicago School, the architect Louis Sullivan divided an office block in three areas. The ground floor shops and the development of the following office floors. The top floor, partly as a home automation. According to the use he breaks down the facade like a classical column into three areas: Base, shaft and capital.
Typical of the Chicago School were large display windows on the ground floor, made possible by the supporting iron skeleton and a facade design in the office area with large windows arranged in rows interrupted by smooth, factual stone pillars without ornaments. The top floor ( building services floor) was performed frequently as Attica.
In particular, in Chicago and New York City were in the following years an increasing speed ever higher buildings built so that it became increasingly dark in the streets. For this reason, the architect Ernest Flagg in 1898 suggested permit directly to the street only parts of the building with a limited height. In New York, this proposal was received in 1916 as Zoning Resolution in the Building Code and subsequently led to step-like manner from the road rising skyscrapers, lacking the clear line of the Chicago School.
Most important architects
- Dankmar Adler
- Daniel H. Burnham
- William Holabird
- William Le Baron Jenney
- Henry Hobson Richardson
- Louis H. Sullivan
- John W. Root