Christian Democracy (Italy)
The Christian Democrats ( DC; Italian for Christian Democracy ) was the most important political party in Italy 1945-1993 and found almost all prime ministers during this period. It saw itself as a moderate Catholic People's Party the middle.
Foundation and basic political lines
The Christian Democrats was founded on December 15, 1943 at the end of vent'anni (20 years) the government of Mussolini some Christian movements: by members of the PPI ( Partito Popolare Italiano) of Don Luigi Sturzo, of the Azione Cattolica and the Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana ( FUCI ). Its founders included some later Prime Minister:
- Alcide de Gasperi ( Prime Minister 1945-53 ), Mario Scelba, Attilio Piccioni and Giovanni Gronchi of the " PPI "
- Aldo Moro and Giulio Andreotti of " Azione Cattolica "
- Amintore Fanfani and Giuseppe Dossetti of the " FUCI "
- And Giuseppe Alessi, Sicilian politician.
Content fundamentals were Catholicism, Christian social doctrine and anti-communism.
Political Secretaries of DC
The leadership of the party was responsible for the Political Secretaries ( Segretari Politici ). These were in the history of DC:
- Alcide De Gasperi ( July 1944 - September 1946 )
- Attilio Piccioni ( September 1946 - January 1949 )
- Giuseppe Cappi ( January-June 1949)
- Paolo Emilio Taviani ( June 1949 - April 1950 )
- Guido Gonella ( April 1950 - September 1953 )
- Alcide De Gasperi ( 2nd time, September 1953 - June 1954 )
- Amintore Fanfani ( June 1954 - March 1959 )
- Aldo Moro ( March 1959 - January 1964 )
- Mariano Rumor ( January 1964 - January 1969 )
- Flaminio Piccoli ( January-November 1969)
- Arnaldo Forlani ( November 1969 - June 1973)
- Amintore Fanfani ( 2nd time in June 1973 - July 1975)
- Benigno Zaccagnini ( July 1975 - February 1980)
- Ciriaco De Mita (May 1982 February 1989)
- Arnaldo Forlani ( 2nd time in February 1989 to October 1992)
- Mino Martinazzoli ( October 1992 - January 1994 )
Governments under the DC
The Christian Democrats often went a changing coalitions of up to five parties that were classified generally as center-left coalitions. Her focus in the political center with tendencies to the left and right, depending on which flow in the collecting party was able to prevail or just put the strongest wings.
The four most common coalition partner of the DC were the Italian Socialist Party ( PSI), the Italian Socialist Party ( PSDI ), the Republicans (PRI ) and the Liberals (PLI ). These existing primarily in the 1980s, five coalition was called Pentapartito.
Exceptionally, the Italian Christian Democrats also worked together with parties on the right and on the left. So Fernando Tambroni could quote a very short-lived government until July 1960 with the support of the neo-fascist Movimento Sociale Italiano of May. In the second half of the 1970s then some DC governments were part of the " Historic Compromise " tolerated by the communist Partito Comunista Italiano ( PCI) to jointly counter the terrorist threat posed by the Red Brigades.
The vast majority of prime ministers of the so-called First Republic (1946-1994) came from the Christian Democrats. De Gasperi and Andreotti led seven, six Fanfani and Moro five governments. Only four cabinets were led by members of other parties: namely, governments Spadolini (PRI, 1981-82 ) Craxi (PSI, 1983-87 ), Amato (PSI, 1992-93) and Ciampi (independent, 1993-94 ).
Crisis and resolution of the DC
After the investigation by the Milan prosecutor's office in 1992 under the title Mani pulite ( Clean Hands, corresponding to the " clean sheet " ) many senior officials of the DC and the PSI involvement in corruption cases (see Tangentopoli also ) had demonstrated became the DC in a serious crisis.
The party tried to reform under Mino Martinazzoli. On 18 January 1994 the leadership to change the name of the party back to the Partito Popolare Italiano ( PPI) decided - the party from which the DC was in 1943 emerged. After an electoral defeat shortly afterwards Martinazzoli resigned and the party split into numerous factions.
Direct offshoot of DC
Members of the conservative camp were led by Pier Ferdinando Casini, the CCD (Centro Cristiano Democratico ), a left wing of the PPI founded the CS ( Cristiano Sociali ) aufgingen in the Alliance of the Democratic Left ( Democrats of the Sinistra, former communists ). From the PPI then went La Margherita - out Democrazia è Libertà. None of these parties there is more.
The following, still existing parties describe themselves explicitly as a political heir of the Christian Democrats:
- UDC, led by Pier Ferdinando Casini and Rocco Buttiglione;
- Christian Democracy: This small party bears the same name as the DC, particularly its chairman Giuseppe Pizza, former Undersecretary of State in the Cabinet Berlusconi, after a long dispute holds the naming rights.
- UDEUR, led by Clemente Mastella, is no longer represented in the national parliament, but very well in numerous regional parliaments, provincial and city councils. The UDEUR was represented for a long time in the center-left coalitions and served among other things as Mehrheitsbeschafferin for the government Prodi II, on whose case she was subsequently instrumental; in 2009 Mastella announced a collaboration with the center-right block to Silvio Berlusconi.
The DC heritage in other parties
After the merger, the Margherita with the Left Democrats, numerous Christian Democrats of the ex-left wing of the party in the Partito Democratico find. The former Italian Prime Minister and President of the European Commission (1999-2004) Romano Prodi is part of the Christian Democratic wing of the Partito Democratico. He had participated as industry minister in a register held by Giulio Andreotti Cabinet. The former chairman of the Democratic Party Dario Franceschini also began his career in DC.
In Berlusconi's Popolo della Libertà many Christian Democratic politicians and voters have their new political home found. The DC -Able Gerin Christian Democrats per le autonomy, which presented the Minister for the implementation of the government program in the Cabinet Berlusconi, Gianfranco Rotondi, has now disbanded and joined the PDL. In addition, former Minister Angelino Alfano and Claudio Scajola and the Lombardy regional president Roberto Formigoni have become politically high in the ranks of the Christian Democrats.
In addition, most politicians of the Movimento per le autonomy, among them the President of the Sicily Region Raffaele Lombardo, former Christian Democrats.