The Cisuralium (also Permian or Lower Permian) in the Earth's history the lowest chronostratigraphic series or geochronologic epoch of the Permian. They began about 298.9 million years ago and ended about 272.3 million years. Your precedes in time the Pennsylvanian series of the Carboniferous. Your followed by the Guadalupium series, the Mittelperm.


The series is named ( Cisural ) to the western (European) side of the Ural Mountains; in contrast, is called the Eastern (Asian ) side Transural. The name was proposed in 1982 by John Bruce Waterhouse.

Definition and GSSP

The base of the Cisuralium series ( and the Asselian - level ) is defined by the first appearance of the conodont species Streptognathodus isolatus. The series ends (or the Guadalupium series starts ) with the first appearance of the conodont species Jinogondolella nanginkensis. The GSSP for the Carboniferous - Permian boundary, the Cisuralium and Asselian is located in the valley of Aidaralash, near the city of Aktobe (Russian Aktjubinsk ) in the southern Urals (Kazakhstan).


The Cisuralium is divided into four geological stages:

  • System: Perm ( 298.9 to 252.2 mya ) Series: Lopingium (Upper Permian) ( 259.9 to 252.2 mya )
  • Series: Guadalupium ( Middle Permian) ( 272.3 to 259.9 mya )
  • Series: Cisuralium (Lower Permian) ( 298.9 to 272.3 mya ) Level: Kungurian ( 279.3 to 272.3 mya )
  • Level: Artinskian ( 290.1 ​​to 279.3 mya )
  • Level: Sakmarium ( 295.5 to 290.1 ​​mya )
  • Level: Asselian ( 298.9 to 295.5 mya )

The Cisuralium in Central Europe

In Central Europe, the lower parts of the Permian were deposited at the time of Cisuralium.