City of London
The City of London is the historical and commercial center of Greater London. It is often simply referred to as The City or the Square Mile ( square mile, according to their surface area ) respectively. Although the City was for centuries synonymous with London, the city name is now used for the entire built-over area. The City of London is a ceremonial county.
The City of London is the smallest area and the least populated district of London. The population consists of 84.6 % White, 9.1% South Asians, 3.9 % black and 1.3 % Chinese together. Although it officially has only a few thousand inhabitants, keep on weekdays several hundred thousand employees on in the City of London.
The City of London is based on its status as a separate legal entity one of the largest financial centers in the world (see also list of financial centers worldwide success ).
In the west, the City of London bordering the City of Westminster, in the northwest of Camden, in the north of Islington, in north- east by Hackney, in the east of Tower Hamlets and on the south by the River Thames and Southwark. The Tower of London is not in the city, but just outside in Tower Hamlets, contrary to the prevailing opinion. In the river, the border is in the middle, with the exception of the London Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge, which are managed in its entirety by the City.
The City of London was once limited by the London Wall. These fortifications had been built by the Romans to protect the strategically located port city of Londinium. The wall is now almost completely disappeared, only individual sections have been preserved. A significant portion of the Museum of London was discovered on December 29, 1940, cleaning up after a German air raid. The former city gates were Ludgate, Newgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate, Bishopsgate and Aldgate.
From 1550 to 1899 the south of the Thames, Borough of Southwark was under the name Ward of Bridge Without also to the city, today it is in the London Borough of Southwark. Over the centuries, the borders remained north of the Thames virtually unchanged. 1993 but were made at individual points by exchanging parcels cleanup operations since the boundaries no longer everywhere made sense because of the urban development. Overall, resulted in a small area gain.
The City of London has a special political status. Reason for this is conferred by the Crown over the centuries privileges which have not been repealed or revised fundamentally. The City is managed by the City of London Corporation. The Chair of the Corporation leads the Lord Mayor of London. This office is not to be confused with that of the Mayor of London. The election process for the Corporation does not correspond to the usual democratic principles, as business leaders exert a disproportionate influence. The City of London is divided into 25 Wards.
Within the City there are two legally separate enclaves, the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple next to the Royal Courts of Justice. Although they are part of the ceremonial county of, but are not managed by the Corporation. The City of London Corporation is in possession of numerous parks and forests in and around London. These include Hampstead Heath and the largest part of Epping Forest. It also has three indoor markets; Smithfield market within their own borders and the Old Spitalfields Market and Billingsgate Fish Market in the borough of Tower Hamlets.
Since the reign of Elizabeth I. It is a tradition that the respective British monarch is a petition to the Lord Mayor of London before entering the City of London at Temple Bar. As a sign of loyalty to the Sword of State the Lord Mayor is then presented. However, the Lord Mayor has not - as is sometimes suggested - the right of the monarch to refuse entry to the city.
The City of London has its own police force, the City of London Police ( the rest of the metropolitan area of Greater London is the responsibility of the Metropolitan Police ). The Corporation operates the City Bridge Trust, which takes care of the maintenance of five major bridges. The Health Authority of the City is responsible for all port facilities and also for the inspection of imported goods at the Heathrow airport.
The City of London has since 886 the right to self-government, when King Alfred the Great, his son Æthelred appointed governor of London. Alfred made sure that the businessman from North West Europe had enough accommodation. This offer was later extended to traders from the Baltic region and Italy. In the City is a separate legal system for traders developed. In the 10th century King Æthelstan granted the city the right to operate eight mints. This was a sign of special prosperity, because Winchester, the then capital of England, possessed only six mints.
After the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the army of William the Conqueror marched to Southwark, but could not occupy the London Bridge still conquer the city. After plundering the surrounding areas by the Normans of the Anglo-Saxon nobility capitulated in Berkhamsted. William rewarded the fortitude of the London and recognized in 1075 their privileges with a royal charter. The City of London was one of the few institutions in which the Anglo-Saxons retained a certain degree of authority. But Wilhelm had the fortresses Tower of London, Baynard 's Castle and Castle Montfitchet build to control the city.
King Henry I granted the status of a 1132 London County ( County ). 1141 was the forerunner of the City of London Corporation. The city was in 1212 by a city fire partially in 1666 completely destroyed in another major fire, the great fire of London.
During the 19th and almost the entire 20th century the population of the City declined steadily since many houses were demolished to make room for office buildings. In the 1970s, numerous high-rise buildings were built. The completed in 1980, 183 m high Tower 42 (formerly the NatWest Tower ) is the first skyscraper in the United Kingdom.
Since the early 1990s, the population increases again slightly; However, it is not likely that it will greatly increase 10,000. New residential space is created mainly in commercial buildings from the first half of the 20th century, which no longer meet the needs of large enterprises. The largest residential area of the City is the Barbican Estate, a complex Extending well brutalist architecture, which is home to the Barbican Centre, one of the most important cultural centers of London. To meet the space requirements of the financial industry, new skyscrapers are planned, such as the Bishopsgate Tower.
- St Paul 's Cathedral
- Bank of England
- London Wall
- Museum of London
- Royal Exchange
- Old Bailey
- London Stone
- Ruins of the Mithras temple
- Tower 42
- 30 St Mary Axe
- Broadgate Tower
- Temple Church
- Various markets, including Leadenhall Market
- Tower of London