Closing credits

The credits (including credits ) is a graphically -designed end element of a film, television show or some computer games. In the credits, typically, the credits are shown. It is convention that the first performer, then the rod, often first to name the most important persons. At the end of the credits usually are the production companies and some legal information, especially the copyright information. Technically, the guy is usually implemented as a rolling title.

Technology and effects

The closing credits, the filmmakers often use as a way Acknowledgements or dedications to pronounce. Sometimes can be found here also an indication of the actual location. Here are the sponsors and their brand names are usually called and given technical information about film method, material and lens systems used and regulatory approvals and - in addition to film corporate or imparting notes - the year of production and country. Often, the interested party can also bring the music listening, including performer and composer in experience here.

Many viewers consider the credits but only as boring appendages and therefore do not follow him. This leads to a conflict of interest between filmmakers, viewers and television stations.

For very old films is generally no credits. Here the film was often described by a simple " end ", " The End" or " Fin" ended. The names of the participants were exclusively mentioned in the opening credits of the film. Today, in many cases, a mix is used, only the names of the leading actors, the producer and the director are shown in the opening credits and after the film still follows an extensive closing credits, in which ( almost) all parties mentioned.

Measures to enhance the attractiveness

In cinema, a large part of the audience leaves the hall at the beginning of the credits, which can take several minutes in many cases. The filmmakers have developed in the course of time, various methods to counteract possible. So it may happen that a complex, nested action is only resolved by not previously shown key scenes that are einmontiert in the credits ( a particular feature, for example, in Wild Things ). This applies also to on Hangover that still Unclear is explained in the credits.

A variant of this method is to show only after the traditional closing credits still a short, usually funny scene act as " bouncers " to. Examples: Pirates of the Caribbean, Dance of the Vampires, The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, Bean - The Ultimate Disaster Movie and Scary Movie.

Some films are also trying their audience uncredited yet with funny speech errors or other glitches ( outtakes ) of the shooting to entertain (eg Jackie Chan movies ). Pixar has produced for its computer-animated films specially devised " margins " for the end credits.

Also, to hear during the end credits usually one of the theme songs or theme songs. Many film composers must compose during the film close to the image along the credits of the classic overture of many Hollywood films of the Golden Age serves as an opportunity to develop the musical ideas developed in a konzertanteren version again and to provide them with more space, similar. Thus, sudden changes in mood, which claims the film will be composed of liquid in the concert version. On many albums instrumental film music of the title in question is often performed under the name " End Credits " or " Suite" and usually placed at the end of this album, but sometimes deliberately placed at the beginning, to give it as said overtures character.

Even the makers of television programs are keen to show credits, this Broadcast however fail from the outset is much shorter than that of movies. Nevertheless, it is often also tries to make the guy interesting, for example, show comedy series such as SketchUp after the credits like to have an extra sketch.

Credits treatment in the television broadcast

Unlike in the movie are in the Free TV film and Serienabspänne almost always removed and replaced by small pop-up window, in which at the same time have a preview for the next movie or a commercial is shown. The reason given is that the guy interrupts the program flow and the audience encouraged to change the TV channel.

Another variant of the reduction credits practicing some public television station in Germany by the end credits is played with partly much higher speed than is actually provided; places are also simply removed parts of the credits. The music that inevitably has to be cut off by this process is hidden towards the end, or overlaid with spoken program notes. If at the beginning credits still be seen in the background the last scene, the guy accelerated only clearly visible after the final fade to black.

Special case of Schindler's List

The only feature film that will always be shown on free TV with credits, is Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List. Steven Spielberg can be defined in the license terms, among other things, that the film of television stations may not be cut and the opening and closing credits must be shown in full length. On ProSieben the screen at the last broadcasts was divided for this: In the upper half of the image of the guy ran with the usual credits, in the lower half of screenshots from the movie.

This method was also used in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the free-TV premiere on ORF.

Treatment as advertising space in the pay- TV " Sky"

Since the end of 2013, the credits are used as advertising space in their own right in Erstausstrahlungskanal "Sky Cinema". On the part of Sky is communicated that this constituted an orientation aid and will positively received by many customers, but an online petition was launched by opponents of setting advertising in movie credits to life. Sky responded that it was not a question advertising and no interruption.


Occasionally, especially in American films, the names of some crew members are still various readjusted letter abbreviation that should explicitly refer to the membership of the person concerned in a particular, often honorable association in the credits. The main shortcuts are:

  • A.C.E. = American Cinema Editors
  • A.S.C. = American Society of Cinematographers
  • B.S.C. = British Society of Cinematographers
  • BVK = Bundesverband camera
  • C.S.A. = Casting Society of America
  • G.B.F.E. = Guild of British Film Editors
  • M.P.S.E. = Motion Picture Sound Editors

There are also a number of other associations of virtually all professional groups represented in the film, whose members are but seldom explicitly highlighted in the credits as such. Their umbrella organization is the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes, or IATSE short

Diving uncredited the pseudonym Alan Smithee on, he does not want to be associated with the film.