Cognition ( see Latin cognoscere, ',' learn ',' to know ') is performed by a behavior -controlling system information transformation.
Cognition is a mixed used term, with the on the information processing of humans and other systems of reference. Often with " cognitive " thinking meant in a broad sense. Although cognitive processes in humans may extend aware have " cognitive " and " awareness " quite different meanings. So may be unconscious and yet cognitively certain processes in man. An example of this is unconscious learning.
Among the cognitive abilities of humans include among others the perception, attention, memory, learning, problem solving, creativity, planning, orientation, imagination, reasoning, introspection, the will, the faith and some more. Even emotions have a significant cognitive component. Cognitive abilities are examined from different sciences such as psychology, neuroscience, psychiatry, philosophy and artificial intelligence research. The scientific study of cognition is summarized under the concept of cognitive science.
Cognition in Psychology
In psychology, cognition refers to the mental processes and structures of an individual such as thoughts, opinions, attitudes, desires and intentions. Cognitions can also be understood as information processing, where learning new things and knowledge is processed, eg in terms of reasoning and problem solving.
Cognitions include what individuals think about themselves, their ( social) environment, their past, present and future. Cognitions can influence emotions (feelings ) and / or be influenced by them.
One can therefore hold that cognitions are all the internal representations that an individual from the world ( subjective reality) and construct itself can be (in the sense of radical constructivism ).
The system theory of cognition ( Santiago theory ) goes back to Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela, the spirit defined as the actual process of life in the 1960s. External stimuli are seen as interference, which counteracts a living being to allow its survival (see autopoiesis ). An observer of this reaction writes the animal to cognition. Maturana summarized his theory together under the slogan to live is to know.
Limits of cognitive performance
" By design ", the cognitive performance have several weaknesses:
- Perception ( sense organs ) - Not all information available to be used, but solid filtered, integrated and varied in many other ways before they enter into consciousness.
- Thinking - Working memory in which takes place the mental manipulation of information, has a very small capacity.
- Learning - The information stored in long-term memory are often both in advance (eg expectations ), as well as ex changed ( by the following information, for example ).
- Remember - the long-term memory "actually" available information is often not available, the so-called retrieval problem.
- Motivation and concentration - fatigue, listlessness, distractibility, etc. can affect cognitive performance.
Cognition in Marketing
Cognition is relevant insofar as the process of information processing plays an important role in the purchase or consumer behavior for marketing. Here, several different basic theories to the process of information processing will still apply. The information processing denotes a process between a transmitter of information, the company, and a recipient of this information, the standing in front of a consumer purchasing decision, takes place. The extent and quality of the information processing process therefore determine which information arrives at the customer and how it receives those judged collects and uses with respect to its purchase decision.
Stages of information processing
Information search means the recovery of external information, i.e., those which are not yet available in the long term memory. The marketing has focussed mainly on the extent of information search to provide information accordingly. The extent of information search, in turn, depends on the following factors:
- The ability of consumers to seek information
- The expectation of the consumers regarding the benefits of the Information Search
- The expectation of the users in relation to the cost of the search for information
- The experience, which has already been made with the product, the consumer
- The involvement of the consumer
Cognition in jurisprudence
In the jurisprudence cognition refers to the degree and intensity of the judicial review of an appeal, respectively, of an appeal. The free cognition represents a free assessment of all the evidence. Arbitrariness cognition means only a limited review of the Court on qualified incorrectness of an appeal.