Collar (Order of Knighthood)
The Collar of (also: Kollane from French necklace, necklace ) is a magnificent chain of orders and part of many European Order.
The old religious order of knights used usually not a chain or a very simple, consisting of simple rings. The first modern Collane created Henry VII of England for the Garter: the religious sign hung on a heavy gold chain that consisted of two elements - the red St. George's Cross, where a blue garter with the motto of the Order was highlighted, and the five-petalled red so-called Lancasterrose. Since Edward VI. Collar of these consists only of red roses. The second historically documented Collane appeared in 1430 on the portrait of the founder of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy, and consists of two elements: black enameled golden flints, which are staffed with white polka dots, and golden fire rays.
Especially popular were the Collanen in the 17th century since the time of the splendor-loving Baroque. Later, worked out in the 18th and 19th century statutes of various orders limited the wearing of Collanen on the person of the Grand Master of the Order - the sovereign - or gave the Collar of the status of a special award that could be awarded to the Grand Cross of the Order. Exceptions are the Savoy (later Italian ) Annunciation Order ( Annunziatenorden ), which was always worn on a Collar of that in 1861 I of King William donated by Prussia Grand Cross of the Red Eagle Order, which also only from the decoration with Collar of existed, the Serbian Order of Saint Lazarus with his Collar of, the state only the king and the Scottish Order of the Thistle, which can rarely be worn and worn on special Collar Days only with the Collar of.
Today ( 2004) are the most Collanen ( with the exception of the Garter, the Scottish Thistle Order and the highest levels - Knight / Dame Grand Cross - the other British orders of chivalry ) reserved for heads of state or the Order sovereign.
Only the President of France must bear the Collar of the Legion of Honour, and only the President of Russia may use the Collar of the Order of Merit in 1992, donated by Boris Yeltsin of the Russian Republic. On ceremonial occasions, for example, the king of Sweden to pay four Collanen: the Seraphinenordens, the North Star Order, the Sword and the Order of the Wasaordens.
Often the Collar of is added to the coat of arms of the Order members ( the members of the Order of the Garter wear instead mostly just the garter to the coat of arms ).
Since the Monarch member is in his house decorations or medals, the Collar of the grown state emblem of most European monarchies was used as a framing of the shield: that of the Black Eagle of Prussia, that of the Golden Fleece in Austria, the Order of Saint Andrew in Russia that of Saxe- Ernestine House Order in the three Saxon duchies the Ernestine line of Seraphinenordens in Sweden, etc.
Even today, used in Scotland version of the British royal coat of arms is surrounded by the Collar of the Order of thistle.