Coregonus is a genus of fish species from the order of salmon -like ( Salmoniformes ). German names are R ( h) einanken, whitefish, whitefish, coregonids, whitefish, whitefish, etc. Here, a German name for various kinds are; many species have several names depending on the region.
The genus Coregonus is the most diverse within the order of salmon -like. From its external appearance, the individual species difficult to distinguish; for species identification are the gill rakers, which vary in number, shape and arrangement from species to species.
The coregonids live mostly in deeper lakes ( over 50 meters ), for example, Lake Constance and other pre-alpine lakes, such as the Chain of Lakes Lake Biel, Lake Neuchâtel and Lake Geneva, the Attersee, the Italian Lakes and in northern German lakes as the Ratzeburger See, Schaalsee, Lake Schwerin, Ploen Lake Selenter lake Arendsee and others. Some species were or are also found in salt water, for example in the Baltic and North Sea.
The coregonids feed - depending on the type - of plankton and larger animals. Closely related species often have occupied different ecological niches. They differ, for example, in whether they take their food in the open water primary ( for example, sulfur Brenken ) or on the ground (called ground Renken ). In order to collect the plankton, some species have yet significant mucus -producing Epibranchialorgane in the pharynx.
Origin of the name
The system is cluttered with many renamings. Even more confusing are the German names of species, as these change from region to region (see above). The only national names are the educational linguistic " coregonids " for the whole genus and " whitefish " or " Schnepel ". Coregonus ' (Greek ) means " angle pupil " - because the Sehloch is not circular but has a section in the direction from the predominantly food visible (that is true not only for Renken, but for most fish ).
In particular, the populations in the glacial lakes formed after the Ice Age can be seen as an example for geographic isolation, which can lead to speciation (see theory of evolution ). This also results in the variety of local forms, which are only partially different real types, but usually races / sub-species, which differ more in appearance than in the genes.
The genus Coregonus forms within the salmon -like along with Stenodus and Prosopium the family Coregonidae.
The coregonids are tasty food fish, the fried, smoked, are (rare) boiled and steamed.
In particular, since as a food fish coveted swing Brenken ( whitefish, Edelmaräne ) feed on plankton, you can not start with a conventional fishing, so they are traditionally adjusted with the gillnet or large pots them. This muzzle is also restricted to the mating season in June and July, as the fish stay in the other months to deeper places. The angler can catch whitefish using Hegenen. These are multi - hook systems ( " Paternoster " ) with camouflaged as bloodworms fish hooks, so-called " nymphs ".
Many coregonids and whitefish are an endangered species of fish. Both in North America and in Europe, the stocks in the 19th and 20th centuries were heavily overfished. In addition, due to competition with faunenfremden fish population collapsed. Today especially water pollution is considered the greatest threat. Another cause of the rarity of these fish are highly restricted distribution areas, some of which contain only a specific area lakes. Twelve taxa are considered extinct or extinct suspected: alpenae Coregonus Coregonus johannae, Coregonus ( officially listed as critically endangered, but no longer detected since the 1980s ) reighardi, gutturosus Coregonus Coregonus bezola, restrictus Coregonus Coregonus fera, Coregonus nigripinnis, Coregonus hiemalis, Coregonus hoferi ( officially listed as critically endangered, but no longer detected since the 1940s ), and Coregonus Coregonus oxyrhyncus Kiyi orientalis. A further 19 taxa, including arenicolus Coregonus Coregonus bavaricus, Coregonus Kiyi, Coregonus candidus and Coregonus confusus are considered endangered, endangered or threatened with extinction.
- Coregonus albellus - Brienzlig
- Coregonus albula - vendace
- Coregonus albula lucinensis - Small Luzin Whitefish
- † Coregonus alpenae - Long Pine Whitefish
- Coregonus alpinus - Kropfer
- Coregonus arenicolus - Sandy whitefish
- Coregonus Artedi - American vendace
- Coregonus atterensis - Attersee- Reinanke
- Coregonus autumnalis - Arctic whitefish
- Coregonus baicalensis
- Coregonus bavaricus - Ammersee whitefish
- † Coregonus bezola - Bezoule
- Coregonus candidus - Bond Elle
- Coregonus chadary
- Coregonus clupeaformis - Heringsmaräne
- Coregonus clupeoides - Powan
- Coregonus confusus - Pfärrig
- Coregonus danneri - Riedlingsdorf
- Coregonus fatioi - Albock
- Coregonus fontanae - Stechlin Whitefish
- † Coregonus fera - Fera
- † Coregonus gutturosus - Lake Constance whitefish
- Coregonus heglingus - Hägling
- † Coregonus hiemalis - Gravenche
- Coregonus hoferi - Chiemsee whitefish
- Coregonus hoyi
- Coregonus huntsmani
- † Coregonus johannae
- Coregonus Kiyi - Kiyi
- Coregonus laurettae - Bering Whitefish
- Coregonus lavaretus - whitefish
- Coregonus maraena - Ostseeschnäpel
- Coregonus lucidus
- Coregonus lucinensis - Luzin - Quietschbauch, Quietschbükers
- Coregonus macrophthalmus - course fish
- Coregonus maxillary - Storsik
- Coregonus megalops
- Coregonus migratorius - Omul
- Coregonus muksun - Muksun
- Coregonus nasus - Large Bodenrenke, whitefish
- Coregonus nelsonii
- † Coregonus nigripinnis
- Coregonus nils soni - Edelmaräne
- Coregonus Nipigon
- Coregonus nobilis - Edelfisch
- † Coregonus oxyrhyncus - houting, Rheinschnäpel
- Coregonus palaea - Palée
- Coregonus pallasii - Aspsik
- Coregonus peled - peled
- Coregonus pennantii - Gwyniad
- Coregonus pidschian - Small Bodenrenke
- Coregonus pollan - Pollan
- Coregonus reighardi - Short Nose Whitefish
- Coregonus renke - Starnberg whitefish
- † Coregonus restrictus - Ferit
- Coregonus Sardinella
- Coregonus stigmaticus - Schelly
- Coregonus subautumnalis
- Coregonus suidteri - Balchen
- Coregonus trybomi
- Coregonus tugun lenensis - Lena Tugun
- Coregonus tugun tugun - Tugun
- Coregonus ussuriensis
- Coregonus vandesius
- Coregonus waiting manni - Lake Constance whitefish
- Coregonus widegreni - Buckelmaräne
- Coregonus zenithicus - Short Pine Whitefish
- Coregonus zuerichensis - Blaalig
- Coregonus zugensis - Albeli