County of Baden

The county of Baden was 1415-1798 a common rule - ie a subject territory, which was administered from multiple locations together - the Confederates, with which it retired in 1648 from the National Association. It consisted of the northeastern part of present-day Canton of Aargau in Switzerland.


The original Office of Baden was first owned by the Counts of Lenzburg, from 1173 to the Counts of Kyburg, from 1264 to the Counts of Habsburg. It included the triangle between the Rhine and the Reuss and was managed by a Habsburg bailiff of the castle rock in Baden from. The county as a district of the High jurisdiction belonged in pertinence to the reign Baden and included areas where the Habsburgs did not exercise the lower courts.

After the conquest by the Confederates in 1415, the area was named " County of Baden " and was first managed by the eight old places except Uri, was taken to Canton in 1443 and last in the rule. At the county included the former Habsburg offices Baden and Siggenthal, the bailiwicks Klingnau, Zurzach and Emperor chair that belonged to the Prince-Bishopric of Constance, and the parish Leuggern, which was largely owned by the Hospitallers Coming Leuggern. This occurred 1460/67 under the umbrella of sovereignty VIII places. Until 1531/32 the cities of Baden, Mellingen and Bremgarten were calculated to the county of Baden, although the towns exercised the High court itself. Then Mellingen and Baden were under the supervision of the bailiff of the Free offices.

The county of Baden was divided into eight inner and outer three offices. The inner offices were Birmenstorf, Dietikon, Unterehrendingen, Gebenstorf, Leuggern, Rohrsdorf, Siggenamt and betting rings. The external offices were emperor chair, Klingnau and Zurzach, which included the right bank parishes Kadelburg, Lienheim and Hohentengen. The legal system in the county was very inconsistent, which led to numerous conflicts over territorial rights. There were over 30 different court masters. These included the monastery Wettingen, the Knights Coming Leuggern, the monastery of Saint Blaise and the Prince-Bishop of Constance. The cities of Baden, Bremgarten and Mellingen possessed its own courts and self-government and ruled also over some neighboring villages.

The eight places in the old Confederation represented the bailiff in every two years. From 1712, after the defeat of the Catholic cantons in the Second Villmerger war, ruled only the three places reformed Zurich, Berne and Glarus in the ratio 7:7:2. The bailiffs resided in Baden in the « Niderhus ", later Landvogteischloss. There often were held Tagsatzungen the Confederation after 1712. The Untervögte came mostly from the local upper class.

In the villages of the county agriculture was almost exclusively operated. Markets were held in Bremgarten, Mellingen, emperor chair and Klingnau; Zurzach was an important exhibition venue. In the country the craft was first tolerated, 1666 even explicitly allowed. Due to the inconsistent legal structure and the real division in the law of succession, the country became more and more fragmented. End of the 18th century there were in the county Baden no single factory or factory.

1528 changed most of the communities to the Reformed faith, but were re-Catholicised again in 1531 after the Second Kappel peace. Since Protestant and Catholic princes of the provinces changed rapidly, were able to maintain Reformed majorities in Zurzach and Tegerfelden. Which are under the influence of the Zurich city communities in the eastern Limmattalstrasse always remained reformed. Birmenstorf, Gebenstorf and Würenlos were mixed denominational.

The county of Baden was the only area within the jurisdiction of the Old Confederacy, where the 17th century Jews were tolerated. From 1776 her right of residence on Endingen and Lengnau was limited. The Jews were directly responsible to the Governor, could not own land and hold a craft. In addition, they had to a " protective shield and letter " buy from 1696 every 16 years. In the 18th century a large, representative synagogues were built in the villages: the synagogue Endingen and Lengnau synagogue.

On March 19, 1798, French troops invaded. From the county of Baden, the basement office at Bremgarten and the liberal offices of the Helvetic Republic was formed on April 11, the Canton of Baden; however, the right of the Rhine split. Five years later, the Canton of Baden became part of the canton of Aargau.