County of Tripoli
The County of Tripoli covered in today's Lebanon and northern Syria and was the last of the four Crusader states that were founded during the First Crusade in the Middle East.
The beginnings of the county fall into the year 1102, when Count Raymond of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the First Crusade, a protracted war with the Banu Ammar began, the emirs of Tripoli, the vassals of the Fatimids in Egypt were theoretically, by and by whose territory occupied and eventually besieged in the city itself. Built in 1103 Raimund the mighty castle on the Mons Peregrinus as a main base for control of the country to Tripoli.
Raymond died on 28 February 1105 and left his young son Alfonso -Jordan back as heirs under the reign of Wilhelm Jordan of Cerdanya. Wilhelm Jordan continued the siege of the city for another four years until an illegitimate son of Raymond Bertrand, whom he had left as regent in Toulouse, came to the east and Toulouse Alfons Jordan and his mother left, returning then to France. Bertrand and Wilhelm Jordan came under the mediation of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem to an agreement according to which everyone should dominate the area, which he himself had conquered, an agreement in which Bertrand with the conquest of the city in the following year ( 12 July 1109 ) won the better end. When William -Jordan died a few months later, Bertrand became the sole ruler.
The County of Tripoli was transferred after the death of Raymond as fiefs of the Kingdom of Jerusalem Bertrand, and was then as a vassal state, from 1142 an autonomous castle within its borders, the Krak des Chevaliers, which had been handed over to the Knights of St. John. Count Raymond III. , Of Tripoli from 1152 to 1187 ruled, played in the neighboring Southern Kingdom an important role, both because of his family connections (his mother was a daughter of Baldwin II Hodierna ), on the other hand due to its own title as Prince of Galilee he wore by his wife. He was twice regent in the kingdom, first for the young Baldwin IV from 1174 to 1177, then for Baldwin V from 1185 to 1186, as well as the leader of the aristocratic opposition to the compounds of Baldwin IV to Courtenay, the Knights Templar, Guido of Lusignan and Raynald of Chatillon. Raimund tried unsuccessfully about keeping peace with Saladin, and ironically, it was Saladin's siege of Tiberias, where his wife was staying, who led the Crusader army from defeat at the Battle of Hattin in 1187 to Galilee. Raimund survived the battle, but died a short time later.
Thanks to a timely arrivals Crusader fleet and army from Sicily, the county was able to avoid conquest by Saladin by a series of victories after Hattin. After Raymond's death his sons of the Prince of Antioch, Bohemond III followed .. From the death of Bohemond III. 1201 was the county - ruled in personal union with Antioch - except for the years 1216-1219. This lasted until 1268 Antioch was conquered by the Mamluks.
In May 1271 and Tripoli was besieged by the Mamluks. But that just arrived in Acre army of the Crusade of Prince Edward could relieve the city and the county of Tripoli for now stabilizing.
The death of the infamous Count Bohemond IV in 1287 led to a dispute between his heir, his sister Lucia and the city, betook himself under the protection of the Republic of Genoa. However, it was Lucia, to reach an agreement with Genoa and the city, which once again Venice and the ambitious Bartolomeo Embriaco, the Genoese city's mayor, displeased, now the Mamelukensultan Qalawun called for help. Qalawun conquered the city in 1289 after a siege and made the County of Tripoli so that one end.
Even after the fall of the city to the title of Count of Tripoli was awarded. The Franco- Cypriot family de Nores held the title still 1544th At that time, the Titulargraf of Tripoli 's fourth most important nobles in Venetian -dominated Kingdom of Cyprus. Higher rank were only the Titulargraf of Jaffa, the Count of Karpas, both Venetian nobles, as well as the Greek James Syngritikus as Count of Rocca.
The population of Tripoli recruited mainly from immigrants of southern France and Italy and thus ruled in the county Occitan before, during French was spoken primarily in the three other Crusader states.
List of Counts of Tripoli
- Raymond of Toulouse (1102-1105)
- Alfonso -Jordan (1105-1109) Wilhelm Jordan, Regent (1105-1109)
On the Genealogy of the Counts of Tripoli, see Toulouse ( nobility ) and Ramnulfiden
Feudal lordships in the County of Tripoli
In addition to the domains of the Count of Tripoli, which accounted for about half of the county, there were still numerous feudal lordships.
- Tortosa - Maraclea ( Tartus )
- La Colee ( Coliath )
- Chastel Blanc ( Safita )
- Chastel Rouge ( Yahmur )
- Terra Galifa
- Krak des Chevaliers
- Gibelcar ( Akkar )
- Raisagium Montanée
- Buissera ( Bsharri )
- Moinetre ( Muneitra )
- Gibelet ( Byblos )
- Botoron ( Batroun )
- Le Puy ( Mousaylaha )
- Nephin ( Enfe )
- Besmedin ( Bichmezzin )