The Coxsackie viruses are non-enveloped single ( ) strand RNA viruses [ ss ( ) RNA ] of the genus Enterovirus and family Picornaviridae with the strains A ( CVA) and B ( CVB), the two different Virus species associated with the Human enterovirus A and B. The Coxsackie viruses elicit especially colds, viral meningitis and myocarditis. These viruses were named after the place Coxsackie in New York, where they were first identified in 1948.
These agents include Coxsackie viruses A1 -22, 24 and the coxsackie viruses B1- sixth Man is for these viruses represent a reservoir host to which the pathogens are already heavily customized. Therefore, the induced by these pathogens diseases also show people with already damaged only a small mortality.
The pathogens occur worldwide. So an epidemic with the Coxsackie virus occurred in 1997 in Malaysia, where in three months a total of 30 children died.
These pathogens were also performed in April 2002 in Greece to close all schools. As the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki reported at that time a total of 46 children and adults have been infected, three of whom died. The causative agent of this epidemic it was the so-called B- strain of the virus, which had among other things a myocardial inflammation ( myocarditis) triggered by those concerned.
People become infected usually via contaminated food and water, and - similar to flu viruses - by droplet infection ie direct inhalation of Expirationströpfchen ( Ausatmungströpfchen ) of infected persons or contact infection or contact infection with the viruses of the fallen on objects or body surfaces infectious Expirationströpfchen if they then pass through the mucous membranes eg mouth, nose or eyes in the body.
Coxsackie virus infection can also occasionally meningitis ( meningitis ) and next flu - like symptoms - lead to heart muscle inflammation ( myocarditis) - as in Greece in 2002.
The Coxsackie virus can also cause the so-called hand-foot -mouth disease. This is an epidemic disease with blistering and ulceration. The incubation period is four to eight days. Mostly children are affected under 10 years. As signs of disease occur vesicles, which are mostly found on hands and feet, or occasionally a nodular ( papular ) rash on thighs and mouth ulcers. Coxsackie viruses may, depending on the serotype but also meningitis, herpangina, encephalitis, pericarditis, hepatitis, among others trigger. Furthermore, can cause infections with Coxsackie viruses of groups A and B, especially in the summer months to acute diarrheal diseases ( " Sommerdiarrhoe ").
The Coxsackie virus B is also implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 1 Presumed mechanism here is molecular mimicry between the glutamate and the virus protein P2 -C.
The so-called Bornholm disease (English: devil's grip) is also triggered by Coxsackie viruses of group B. See: pleurodynia epidemic.