Crimean Tatar language
- Altaic languages ( disputed) Turkic languages Kipchak languages Crimean Tatar
The Crimean Tatar language ( krimtatar. Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca [ outdated Cyrillic spelling Къырымтатар тили, Къырымтатарджа ], Alternative names: Qırımca [ Krimisch ] and Qırım Türkçesi [ Krimtürkisch ] ) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. From the Turkish Turkish Studies which is widespread in Turkey " Turkish krimtatarisches " ( Kirim Tatar Türkçesi ) known.
Today's Crimean Tatar literary language has several roots. So it shows references to the actual Tatar and Turkish for. In the north and in the center of the Crimea peninsula nogaische and Tatar dialects were spoken. On the southern coast to the Ottoman Turks settled, which were called " Crimean Turks " in the 19th century. The modern Crimean Tatar is attributed to the Kipchak ( Tatar ) languages because of its history. But she has more in common with the Oghuz Turkish than with other Kipchak languages within this group.
Number of speakers
The number of speakers is around 500,000 people today. By 1989, 90 % of Crimean Tatars living in Uzbekistan, where they were forcibly relocated in 1944. Today, more than 250,000 Crimean Tatars live again on the Crimean peninsula, 200,000 in Uzbekistan, 30,000 in Russia, 6,000 in Bulgaria and 25,000 in Romania.
History, dialects and alphabets
Since the 13th century are known in the Crimea Turkic languages . Since the Islamization of the Crimean Tatars inscribed with Persian- Arabic script. To this came in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Ottoman Turkish nor added, as the southern coast of the Crimea to the Ottoman Empire fell. The Ottoman served in the following centuries in central and steppe Tatars of the peninsula as a lingua franca. As actual roof language later Crimean Tatars traditionally served the Tschagataische, which was replaced in the 15th century by the Ottoman.
1475 was the Khanate of Crimea vassal of the Ottoman Empire. This Ottoman was extended as a language of administration to the entire Crimea. In many cases, the Istanbul dialect was used by the local Turks. This dialect influenced the former Nogay and Tatar languages handling, partly he replaced them.
From 1878, an attempt was made to create from the various Turkic Crimean ( Tatar Steppe, Central Tatar and Crimean Ottoman ) is a unified written language. For example, trying to create from the Tatar Central dialect a written language Kayyum Nasiri. But ultimately Ismail Bey Gaspirali prevailed, the southern Crimean Ottoman gave preference to beat so a bridge to the Turkish Ottomans. But at the Panturkisten this strongly embossed Ottoman language form has been rejected more and more in the following years and started on their side, to develop kiptschakischer basis of a Crimean Tatar literary language and propagate that was virtually free of Persian and Arabic influences.
In 1917, the Crimean Tatar language (only) official language of the newly proclaimed Republic Taurien was declared. Also in the Crimean ASSR Crimean Tatar was next to Russian official language.
1928 was also adopted by the Crimean Tatars, the unified Turkish alphabet, which, however, was in 1938 replaced by Stalin's statement in favor of a modified Cyrillic.
1992/93 Crimean Tatar was declared the third official language of the peninsula, as their spokesman in the meantime make up 10 % of the population.
Decided in 1997 that " Qırım Yuqarı Surasi " the introduction of the turkey Turkish alphabet, extended by the letter Q and Ñ. It is currently used primarily on the Internet, while otherwise further the Cyrillic script shall apply.
As the closest relatives of the Crimean Tatars, the Dobrudja Tatars and Jewish Krimtschaken and Karaime apply.
Krimtatarisches Latin alphabet
Â â is not considered a separate letter.
Krimtatarisches Cyrillic alphabet
гъ, къ, нъ and дж are different letters.