Cultural and creative industries (English cultural industries ) is a new sector of the economy since 1998.
The Minister of Economic Affairs Conference ( WMK ) defined in 2009 the concept of culture and creative industries as follows:
This German demarcation is both the core European definition of the European Commission (LEG Task Force Cultural Employment3 ) as well as with the global reference model, the concept of the British creative industries, compatible.
Cultural and creative economy will be all that productive seen in culture, deals with culture. Cultural and creative industries is more than the market will bear. Therefore, the cultural and creative economy should be seen in a larger context. The Enquete Commission has defined the concept of the creative act, the commonality of artistic creativity, as an addition to the definition of culture and creative industries recommended to its expanded. Anything where people are active, to deal in any way with culture and productive services bring forth no matter how it is financed, is the cultural and creative economy. Basically, the culture industry is completely independent of these terms, statistics and classifications.
A 2009 recommended by the German Minister of Economics conference following guide, the cultural and creative economy includes the following eleven sub- markets:
Since it is in the cultural and creative economy is a sector that is subject to a comparatively high dynamics was formulated with the determination on the part of markets at the same time a general openness and ability to change and expansion. The guide suggests, accordingly, a group of "Other" above, plus relevant in the new or for individual studies, economic activities, such as arts and crafts, can be recorded.
Origin of the term
The concept of Cultural and Creative Economy / Creative Industries has its origin in the UK. The Labour government of Prime Minister Tony Blair advocated during the election campaign in 1997, the Culture Economy / Creative Industries as industries of the future of the British economy and employment. As a result they developed in 1998 in the UK appropriate support frameworks. Still existing - - Discussion about the benefits of these concepts, the maintenance of democracy in Europe and America, a controversial originated. Basic doubt to the statistical analyzes.
Cultural policy Germany
The cultural and creative industries in Germany for several years an important field of economic policy of federal, state and many local governments as well as the European Union. International organizations such as The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD ) have dealt with the phenomenon of global structural change through the Internet, which significantly affected these industries.
At the federal level in 2005, the Study Commission on Culture in Germany for the first time dealt with the issue. In May 2007, a European conference on the cultural and creative industries in Europe took place in the framework of the German EU Presidency, which was organized by the Office for Cultural Policy and Economy and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation. At the same time started in 2007, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi ) and the Commissioner for Culture and Media, the Initiative Culture and Creative Industries. As part of the cultural and creative industries were led by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology for the enforcement of copyrights an economic dialogue, founded more sub - initiatives such as the Initiative Musik gGmbH as a conveyor of the federal government for the music industry in Germany and was responsible for the International Networking to support the potential of the German music industry abroad. It is essentially about the drop in sales of the recording industry through Internet piracy. Generally, it is a priority in all sectors to copyright infringement on the Internet.
In other European countries were laid in Austria in February 2004 with the help of funding from the European Union, a comprehensive study of the economic potential of the "creative industries" in Vienna before.
In Germany commissioned from the beginning to the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology exclusively the Office for Cultural Economic Research in Cologne, to update the current economics of the culture and creative industries to evaluate and calculate based on the data of the Federal Statistical Office. It has since determined what is limited and excluded, classified and evaluated, disseminated uniform figures and opinions. In Germany emerged in recent years, courses for cultural and creative industries, which largely rely on. The Office of Cultural Industry Research in Cologne supervised as early as 1999, several cultural industries Reports: 1998-2013 North Rhine -Westphalia, Saxony- Anhalt in 2001, 2003 Hesse, 2004 Schleswig -Holstein, 2005 Berlin, 2009 Thuringia. These reports are always subject to the same model. 2013 mandated the country for the first time Berlin-Brandenburg another market research firm, the House of Research GmbH to provide the numbers and results to other bases. Here is a problem with the interpretation of the concept of culture and creative industries is obvious. So far, the point of acquisition cost was so designed that such subsidized cultural institutions does not include, not even facing their numbers what constitutes research. Is inconsistent, the subsidiaries of film productions have been added in, which are actually subsidized by the state. The statisticians of the Office of Cultural Industry Research in Cologne complain even the conceptual definition of deficits, as you can read in the - 2014 - current monitoring report of 2012 This shows that the provision of statistical data as a basis and the networking of industries is complicated a year. can not be taken and Performing Arts gambling is counted. In addition, the associations with the addition of the definition of the cultural and creative economy relevant copyright are not unanimous. To correct all this is now in the year 2014, the task of the new Minister for Culture and Media. Finally, there is an international problem. In Germany we have recommended to proceed not by occupation, the British- Australian approach, but by industries in the structures of economic field. This way you can not compare the numbers internationally. Abroad, it is possible to capture the statistics of the professional groups and the free people of subsidized farms. In Germany, for example, the numerous profit-making, in part subsidized music and theater companies or their employees, freelancers ect. not counted, as in the UK, Australia, Scandinavia. This is the traditional, German, international music tradition, which surpasses all countries, in international comparison statistically offside, which may lead to wrong conclusions.
Overall, however, give any reports on cultural industries a first overview of the situation of cultural and creative industries. The cultural leaders feared, however, that the past history and mostly incomplete statistics get too much importance by a flood of information documents. Already, reports are more considered opinions which will ultimately lead to a minimum standard of culture introduce, rather than to extend, and promote. This is supported by Germany in the gradual withdrawal of federal, state and city subsidies and introduction of subsidies. International has serious concerns in Scandinavia, Great Britain and America, that the meaning of the term cultural and creative economy / Cultural industries ultimately leads to industrialization and globalization of culture, which already Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer criticized.
2006 presented the cultural and creative economy in its gross value added of 58 billion euros close to the gross value added of the automotive industry with 64 billion euros zoom. The industry is very fragmented organized. Almost 90% of companies are among the small and micro-enterprises with up to 10 employees.
As an important contribution to the development of cultural and creative industries, the Commission identified the public cultural activities. This is a location factor for companies in the cultural and creative industries. The Commission notes that the development of the industry in Germany is still characterized by strong reservations. So the economy considered cultural goods still subject, artists could not handle money. These reservations are to be found also in the political areas of culture and economy. In its final report, the Commission therefore recommends more open to the economic development of cultural goods and to allow entrepreneurs better access to financing. The Commission also recommends to create the federal government a national cultural industry report. At the local authorities are called upon to make unused brownfield sites such as former industrial sites accessible for the use of artistic productions.
In 2008, the industry already achieved a gross value of € 63 billion and a turnover of 132 billion euros. Around 238,000 companies with close to one million workers are now working in the cultural and creative industries. It is alarming that in this success, not all sub-sectors are involved but significant markets that break away so far support the cultural sector. In addition, the number of self rising steadily steep, which can barely feed themselves. These are interns and freelancers on a fee basis, mini-jobs (450 euros ) mostly financed by taxes on labor agencies. This has a negative impact on tax revenues and pension system. The central aim of the initiative is to counteract and develop this sector positive future prospects. This will both strengthen the competitiveness and the employment potential to be further exploited and developed. In addition to the economic base of innovative small arts organizations that come and go, strengthened and employment opportunities freelance artists | inside are improved. Since 2013/14 the recognition of the cultural and creative industries in Germany has tax implications. The tax authorities were instructed to first separate control numbers to the relevant cultural workers - to forgive - even independent artists without commercial applications.
Cultural industries as a course of study
The following universities in Germany offer the degree program cultural industries with BA / MA degree at:
- University of Bremen
- Accadis School Bad Homburg
- University of Duisburg -Essen
- University of Mannheim
- University of Passau
- University of Music and Theatre in Hamburg
- Hochschule Darmstadt
- Pop Academy Baden- Württemberg
- Copenhagen Business School
- King's College London
For more information regarding course content: cultural industries