The district of Cuxhaven, as measured by its area, one of the largest districts of Lower Saxony and one of the largest in Germany. In comparison, the Saarland is only a quarter larger than the state of 2568.70 km ² with, but has five times as many inhabitants. With a population density of about 97 inhabitants per square kilometer, the county is less than half the national average.
- 2.1 Population development
- 5.1 Kreistag
- 5.2 Administrative Reforms
- 6.1 Jewish Cemeteries
- 7.1 Agriculture
- 7.2 Tourism
- 7.3 seaport
- 7.4 Social Services
- 7.5 traffic
Its location in relation to the rest of Germany is characterized as a pronounced peripheral location, which is even further enhanced by the natural boundaries in the Elbe and Weser estuary to the adjacent areas. At the mouth of the Weser river in the North Sea, the territory of the district-free city of Bremerhaven projects ( State of Bremen ) in the district area. The coastline runs north to Cuxhaven, from where it forms the Elbe in the east to the border with the district of Stade, a natural boundary. Other neighboring counties are in the southeast of the district of Rotenburg (Wümme ) and in the south the county Easter wood. West of the Weser is the Wesermarsch.
The county town of Cuxhaven is in this remote area then again the mathematics of all other points of the district farthest place represents the area of the city is comparable to the area of Hanover, but is assigned in accordance with the number of inhabitants only the central city category. The county includes both the metropolitan region of Bremen / Oldenburg as well as the metropolitan region of Hamburg, where the old circle Hadeln with the city of Cuxhaven to Hamburg rather, the old district Wesermünde tends including by direct motorway connection A27 rather to Bremerhaven / Bremen.
Soil conditions and geology
The subsoil in the area of the district form the moraines and meltwater deposits of the Saale ice age, the penultimate glaciation period of the Pleistocene substantially. These form the sandy back der Geest with their typical boulders of granite and gneiss, as the north-south running mountain ranges of Wingst and Wester mountain, and the Hohenlieth ( Wurster Heide). The terminal moraines of the last glaciation ( Weichselian ) have not reached the area. Therefore, the landforms here are very much smoother and flatter than for example in the " Holstein Switzerland ".
Apart from small, rearranged sediment residues from the Tertiary and centermost rice temporal " Lauenburg clay " can be found only in Hemmoor older rocks: the white " chalk " from the geological formation of chalk. It is the same layers that make up the famous chalk cliffs on Rügen. Until the closure of the plant in Hemmoor these rocks were mined for the production of Portland cement.
With the beginning of the Holocene was carried out by the melting of glaciers a significant sea level rise. The coastal lowlands were flooded; in the valleys in the interior, such as the lowlands of Geestemünde, Lune and Drepte, formed due to the simultaneously rising groundwater levels, the first fens.
In the Hadler bay and in the Weser estuary now formed extensive mud flats. Each time the Watt was awash, were carried along in the sea water suspended solids, and encamped by and by in a slightly elevated Marren, or Platen from. From these sandy silt benches, today's " Highlander " which Seemarschen Hadeln, Wursten and Country Would formed. The lower courses of the rivers today Medem and Oste developed from tidal channels in watts.
In the outskirts of the Geest, who were cut off by the Marren from the open sea, however, were only brackish water and river marshes, today's " Sietländer " (of Low German: siet = low ), and later fens.
In lowlands with particularly unfavorable drainage conditions, it even came to the formation of raised bogs, as Ahlenmoor, Long Moor, Hymenmoor and King Moor ( Moor ), with Torfmächtigkeiten of two to six meters, sometimes even up to eight meters. Only through modern cultivation and drainage, the peat growth was stopped. The peat mosses were initially displaced by heath and dwarf shrubs, then by purple moor grass and birch. Especially in Ahlenmoor efforts are made today but back to the rewetting and restoration of peatlands.
Apart from other areas along the German North Sea coast where a similar combination of such different landscapes, such as Watt, marsh, moor and marshes, probably only in the wash on the coast of Lincolnshire and Norfolk ( UK).
The location on the Elbe estuary and the North Sea run the risk that in the event of a dike breach at a storm surge the circuit area often lying only slightly above sea level would be flooded to a large extent. A possible scenario for the country Hadeln is described in the article Glameyer stack.
Great Urban catchment areas
The rural district of Cuxhaven is structured from the aligned more to Hamburg Altkreis Hadeln and the aligned more to Bremerhaven and Bremen Altkreis Wesermünde. To take account of this different orientation, it is both part of the metropolitan region of Hamburg and the Metropolitan Region Bremen / Oldenburg.
- On the history of the region after 1885 see also: History of the County Cuxhaven
The district of Cuxhaven was formed in 1977 from the formerly independent city and the districts of Cuxhaven Hadeln and Wesermünde.
( at December 31 )
Coat of arms and flag
The coat of arms takes on motifs from those of the previous circles: The Bishop Nicholas from the Hadeln, the sign foot from Wesermünde.
The coat of arms of the district of Cuxhaven shows in gold on red and silver wavy split sign foot the Holy Bishop Nicholas, in green, silbergerändertem regalia, with silver shoes and silver crook whose crookedness ends in a green four-leaf rose, his right hand raised in blessing with silver hair and natural flesh color.
The coat of arms is used in the circuit Flag: The flag of the district of Cuxhaven shows the colors green and white with the coat of arms, which is located in the center of the flag.
Traditionally, the area now the district of Cuxhaven is characterized Evangelical Lutheran. The municipalities belong to the Lutheran Church of Hanover. In particular, after the war have been formed by influx of many a refugee, migrant workers from southern Europe and ethnic Germans from Central and Eastern Europe large Catholic communities belonging to the diocese of Hildesheim. By leaving the church both great Christian churches are subject to restructuring processes. Furthermore, live in the district, inter alia, Muslims, Jehovah's Witnesses and members of the Free Churches.
- CDU: 23 seats (-6)
- SPD: 22 seats (-2)
- GREEN: 7 seats ( 4)
- FW: 3 seats ( 3)
- FDP: 1 seat ( -2)
- LEFT: 1 seat ( 1)
- BF: 1 seat ( -1)
Within the county there was in the past years to municipal reforms. Further reforms are planned. So it came to mergers of joint communities Hadeln and Sietland. 2011 Samtgemeinde Beverstedt was transformed into a unified community, in 2014 the company was converted Samtgemeinde Hagen in a unified community. The merger of the velvet municipality Bederkesa with the City of Long to the city Geestland and the merger of the velvet municipality Wursten with the community north woods to the unity community Wurster North Sea coast are provided.
To care for cultural bodies of the Stade Regional Association was founded as a registered association.
8 Jewish cemeteries are for the district of Cuxhaven documented in Bederkesa, Beverstedt, Cuxhaven, Dedesdorf, Hagen in Bremen, Midlum, Stotel and Wingst .. They are worth protecting cultural monuments - stone witnesses for previously existing Jewish communities and a lively Jewish community life, often to in the 1930s.
Economy and infrastructure
Economic center of the region and also the seat of some of Lower Saxony facilities ( tax office, schools ) is not the city of Cuxhaven, but the land belonging Bremen Bremerhaven.
Is the economic basis of the district, as for centuries, still farming, when it has lost much by the structural changes of the last decades important. In 1979 wirtschafteten in the district or in the aggregate 5,167 farms, 2001, only 3,126 of which 65 % of prime working. The number of farms continues to decrease with increasing tendency. However, the released land do not fall broke a rule, but are usually taken over completely by the remaining farms.
About 70 % of the district is agricultural land ( 140,000 hectares). Of these hinwiederum about 70% grassland and 30 % cropland. The grassland areas, with forage production and cattle farming (85 % of farms ), dominate in all peat and sandy areas, but particularly in the marshes and in Hadelner Would Sietland. On the Geest, the landscape is also characterized by the extensive forestry and forest areas. Of the 294,000 cattle are about 85,000 dairy cows. These thus represent the livelihood of most farmers dar. However, the stocking with 1.53 livestock units per hectare of agricultural land is relatively low, and appropriate to the natural conditions. The cultured in the district high performance animals are marketed in some cases worldwide.
The specialized agriculture ( about 7 % of farms ), for example, of different varieties of cabbage and other vegetables, as well as the garden and orchards (3.3 % of farms ), particularly of apples and cherries, on the other hand is concentrated in the marshes ( esp. in Hadelner Highlands). Approximately 4.7 % of the farms ( with increasing tendency) be dedicated to the processing of pigs and poultry. In the horse breeding associations Wesermünde and Hadeln total of 1,700 mares are registered. Due to the breeding results these clubs enjoy a nationwide reputation.
1999 about 10% of employees worked directly on farms, most of them as family labor. The downstream food industry with their slaughterhouses, dairies, processing companies, retailers, and other services employs a further 13%.
Of great importance is tourism in the district of Cuxhaven. Especially in the Cuxhaven districts Cuxhaven, Dosen and Sahlenburg, as well as in the city Otter village, in the bathroom Bederkesa, and in the Sielhäfen of Dorum and Wremen, there exists a dense tourist infrastructure with hotels of all categories, campsites, restaurants and leisure facilities. For the purposes of tourism promotion used the region for itself the concept of art "Cuxland ", which is not a historical landscape designation.
Key economic factors are also the associated port services in Cuxhaven and Bremerhaven located outside of the district. Both seaports are among other important locations of fishing fleets, cargo ports and Seenotkreuzern.
In the county town of Cuxhaven is a hospital Rhön- Klinikum AG (formerly the City Hospital ) and the HELIOS Seehospital Sahlenburg, in Ottersdorf a hospital Capio group is next operated (formerly the county hospital ). In the circle part Wesermünde is the Marine Park Clinic Debstedt. He also is along- of Bremerhaven clinics. In addition, the district hospital in Osterholz Osterholz- Beck ( Osterholz ) plays an important role in the supply of the southern area of the circular part Wesermünde. The circle part with Hadeln is supplied by the hospital in Bremervörde and the same clinics in Stade.
Traditionally, of great importance for the region 's seafaring. In Cuxhaven, as well as in the neighboring area to the circle Bremerhaven are seaports that are major factors in the local labor market. Of tourist interest IWT is on the Hadelner channel and on the Medem at Otter village.
The circular area was first developed in 1862 by the Hanoverian State Railways only in the south with the railway Bremen- Bremerhaven. In 1881 reached the Unterelbesche railway company from Hamburg to Stade Cuxhaven.
The second compound to Cuxhaven created the Prussian state railway of the railway line Bremerhaven - Cuxhaven in 1896; at the same time she took the branch line Bremerhaven - Speckenbüttel Bederkesa in operation. 1899 followed the line Bremerhaven - Bremervörde.
The little train Farge - Wulsdorf GmbH wrong since 1911 parallel to the lower Weser and later called himself Lower Weser Railway.
The end point of the Itzwörden since 1899 Stade outgoing Kehdinger orbit also was in the district today.
The railway network of more than 160 km in length has been reduced by about a quarter ( 46 km):
The operated on a military Tram Cuxhaven wrong only one month in 1914 to the spa district Dosen. From the tram Bremerhaven and the city Langen was operated from 1919 to 1958.
By the district today run the railways Bremen- Bremerhaven - Cuxhaven ( railway Bremen- Bremerhaven and " Nordseebahn " ), Bremerhaven - Bremervörde -Hamburg ( railway Bremerhaven Buxtehude EVB ) and Hamburg- Stade- Cuxhaven ( " Lower Elbe Railway" ).
By the district extend the federal highway 27 as well as the federal highways 6, 71, 73, 437 and 495, the preferred variant of the proposed Federal Highway 20 runs through the south of the district.
In northern wood is predominantly used by the military airport Cuxhaven North wood. This is the largest military airfield in Germany, but will be expanded more even for private air travel. In addition, the runway is officially recognized as Notlandebahn for the NASA space shuttle.
Cities and Towns
(Population at 31 December 2012)
Joint communities with their member communities
* Head Samtgemeinde management
- 2 Samtgemeinde Bederkesa ( 12,120 )
- 3 Samtgemeinde flare Lamstedt ( 6031 )
- 4 Samtgemeinde Hemmoor ( 13 997 )
- 5 Samtgemeinde Hadeln ( 15,319 )