CVBD is an internationally -used term in the field of veterinary medicine. CVBD stands for Canine Vector- borne Diseases, ie by ectoparasites (called vectors) transmitted diseases in the dog.

Among the ectoparasites include fleas, ticks, mosquitoes.

Transmitted by ectoparasites diseases of the dog are listed below, among others.

Significant CVBD


Canine leishmaniasis is a serious, chronic, zoonotic, disease with an endemic spread in the Mediterranean, Asia and Latin America. Main causative agent of disease of the dog is Leishmania ( donovani ) infantum, L. chagasi synonymously in the New World. This is a scoring protozoan blood parasites, which to its development two hosts, an insect host ( Angel or sandflies [English:. Sandflies ] ) and a vertebrate host is required. Dogs make this the main reservoir of infection for L. infantum is, but other members of the Canidae family can act as a vertebrate host. The clinical presentation is highly variable. It can occur with skin and eyes changes, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, lameness, nosebleeds, diarrhea, etc. amongst others.

Lyme disease

Borreliosis ( Lyme disease engl., Lyme borreliosis ) is a bacterial disease, with incidence in the U.S., various countries in Western and Eastern Europe, and Asia, and probably Australia. This is caused by the disease belonging to different Borrelia burgdorferi complex bacterial species. Carriers of the bacteria are ticks of the genus Ixodes spp. In the case of clinical symptoms, these are often characterized by fever, intermittent lameness, listlessness, swollen lymph nodes and fatigue in disease of the dog.


Babesiosis is a very serious, with hemolytic anemia (anemia) associated disease with global distribution. Disease culprits are in the red blood parasitic protozoa of the genus Babesia. Ticks of the Ixodidae family transmit the parasite. Depending on the pathogen, the clinical symptoms in the diseased dog weigh differently, but generally associated with hemolytic anemia ( high fever, listlessness, weakness, bloody urination ( hematuria), circulatory collapse, may multiple organ failure ).

Canine ehrlichiosis

Canine ehrlichiosis is a significant, tick-borne disease of the dog's global distribution (mainly tropical, subtropical, Mediterranean). Cause of the disease are gram-negative, located in the cells of bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia. Ehrlichia canis is the most important for the dog kind and is transmitted by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The acute clinical phase is characterized among other things by intermittent fever, lymph node swelling, Milz-/Lebervergrößerung, (surface) bleeding, weight loss, ocular abnormalities, and possibly neurological symptoms.


The heartworm or heartworm disease is a serious, caused by the nematode Dirofilaria immitis disease. It is widespread in southern Europe, Canada, the USA, South America, Australia, Southeast Asia and Eastern Asia, including Japan and Korea. The pathogen requires for its development two hosts, an insect host (various species of mosquito ) and a vertebrate host. After transmission of the virus through a mosquito bite occurs in the vertebrate host to the migration and eventual resettlement of adult worms in the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. After months or years to develop due to the localization of the worms clinical symptoms in the form of performance weakness, cough, weight loss, enlargement of the heart to acute hemolysis may, shock and sudden decease.


The evoked by Rickettsia infection of the dog are particularly the Rocky Mountain spotted fever (English: Rocky Mountain spotted fever [ RMSF ] ) and the Mediterranean spotted fever or Boutonneuse fever (English: Mediterranean spotted fever [ MSF ] ) in the foreground. In both cases to the rickettsial bacteria counting the cause of the infection or disease ( Rickettsia rickettsii, R. conorii ). RMSF is widely used in the United States, and Central and South America and is caused by the bite of various ticks as vectors. MSF or Boutonneuse fever is described in southern Europe, the Middle East and South Africa, and as the main vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is suspected. The clinical manifestations of may in humans very serious disease of RMSF vary in the dog. Fever, loss of appetite (anorexia), listlessness, immobility, edema, lymphadenopathy, neurological changes, punctate hemorrhages ( petechiae ) and in some cases also the characteristic of the human redness should be mentioned. With regard to the MSF infections have been detected in dogs, clinical symptoms, however, are not yet described.


The anaplasmosis, formerly common among the granulocytic ehrlichiosis is the term in its clinical expression is not as severe as that caused by Ehrlichia canis ehrlichiosis. Cause of the disease are gram-negative bacteria of the genus Anaplasma, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in particular and Anaplasma platys. The aforementioned pathogens occurs proven in North, West and Central Europe, and the USA, and is by ticks of the genus Ixodes spp. transmitted. The latter North and South America, Asia and Australia is in Southern Europe, described and is transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical picture of A. phagocytophilum is characterized by fever, loss of appetite (anorexia), fatigue, enlarged spleen, diarrhea and possibly lameness and central nervous system changes. A. platys infections manifest themselves with fever and altered bleeding tendencies (→ Canine Cyclic Thrombocytopenia ).

Current Situation

In terms of vector-borne diseases of the dog ( CVBD ) an increase in apparent hitherto endemic regions. The cause of this increase can be of different types. It remains to be determined what impact this have varying climatic conditions and a precipitous increase in travel behavior of dogs. The increased travel activity carried out either at exhibitions, as an accompaniment on holidays or as an import from endemic to non- endemic regions by animal welfare and animal placement organizations. Basically, however, at this increasing trend is a global problem, which is also recognized by experts page ( eg WHO, CVBD World Forum ).

Control options

A comprehensive explanation of the owner of the supervising veterinarian is an important point of prevention dar. Furthermore, should a control, in particular through the use of tick and mosquito Effective preparations and, if available, be carried out by vaccinations to prevent a pathogen transmission. In the case of this disease therapeutic measures to control the spread of pathogens can contribute. Import studies and a central collection of diseased animals in non-endemic regions, as they are sometimes called by experts, could offer more control options.

Pictures of CVBD