D1 motorway (Slovakia)
Template: Infobox trunk road / Maintenance / SK- D
- Bratislavský kraj
- Trnavský kraj
- Trenčín Region
- Prešov kraj
- Košice kraj
- In construction
- In planning
The DIAĽNICA D1 is the longest motorway in Slovakia. It is part of the European Routes 50, 58, 75 and 571 as well as full-length part of the Fifth Pan-European Transport Corridor ( road A): Venice - Bratislava - Kosice - Uzhhorod. The first section opened in 1975 between Bratislava and Senec.
When completed, the highway will be 511 km long. You will then result from Bratislava via Trnava, Trenčín, Púchov, Žilina, Martin, Poprad, Prešov, Košice and Michalovce to the Ukrainian border. Currently, the highway has five sections with a total length of 320 km, in construction are a further 72 km.
With the exception of the Bratislava city route (exits 0-14 ) is subject to all the motorway the Slovak toll sticker.
The first plans for a motorway link from Bohemia ( Prague or Pilsen) via Slovakia to Mukachevo in the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast ( then part of Czechoslovakia ) published in the 1930s. However, the construction work did not start in the late 1930s in the Czech part, in Slovakia for the time being. After the Second World War, the highway construction in favor of the reconstruction of the country has been postponed. In the 1960s, the volume of traffic increased rapidly and new plans were drawn up. In the Government Decision of 10 April 1963, the D1 motorway in the route from Prague via Brno, Uherské Hradiště, Trenčín, Vrútky, Ružomberok, Poprad, Kosice to the Soviet border with a length of 712 km, was it set in Slovakia 402 km; further 107 km long motorway D61 from Bratislava via Trnava was planned to D1 in Trenčín. 1987 was added in the present connection of D2 to the Austrian border, as part of the D61 (now D4). 1999 D61 and the old D1 combined to set up the new route from Bratislava addition.
In 1967 again the highway construction in Prague; in Slovakia, construction began in 1973 with the 14 km section between Ivachnová and Liptovsky Mikulas, together with the dam of the reservoir Liptauer. In 1972 the construction of nearly 17 km section of Bratislava began after Senec (then still referred as D61 ). During the 1970s, the highway was extended up to Trnava ( 36 km). In the 1980s came in the east which is 19 km long section between Prešov and Košice; in Bratislava Harbour Bridge was opened in 1983. Until the separation of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the sections of Liptovsky Mikulas after Hybe and Trnava were added to Piešťany. After 1993 a further 63 km in the Považie and 10 km in Liptau were built.
For financial reasons, the government of Mikuláš Dzurinda stopped 1999 Construction and planning of further distances. In 2002, the construction was resumed.
In the 2000s, work began on the construction of the gaps on the western section (Bratislava - Žilina): so two gaps at the airport ( August 2002) and in Petržalka (December 2005) in Bratislava were done. In Považie the sections Beluša - Sverepec Vrtižer - Dolny Hričov (January 2007) and the city distance by Považska Bystrica (May 2010) were (December 2005) released.
In northern Slovakia Liptau the highway ( Ivachnová - Važec ) Poprad -West ( December 2009) and Spišský Štvrtok (December 2008) has been further east to Mengusovce (December 2007 ), extended. 2003, running through the mountains Branisko Branisko tunnel was opened (but with only one lane ) and the long already since 2001 existing 3 km bypass of Široké extended for a further 3 km eastward. Began in 2005 with the construction of the 7 km stretch from Svinia to Prešov, which was released in June 2010. In the same month, a 8.5 km long, partially single lane section was opened below the Spis Castle, where the lack of road was built in December 2012.
Due to high load on the route Bratislava - Trnava ( traffic volume of 2005 Chorvátsky Grob: 51 307 Fahrzeuge/24 hrs, 2010: 71 088 Fahrzeuge/24 hours) was the distance between Bratislava and Trnava Vajnory to six-lane expansion (for now without an emergency lane ) from 2008 to expanded in 2009 and officially opened on 12 November 2009. An extension to the six-lane highway with emergency lanes and collector lanes along the whole section is for the years 2015 to 2017Vorlage: Future / planned in three years. In addition, instead of the parking lot Triblavina a new junction will be built and the junction Blatné completed.
On the still under construction range near Levoča crashed in November 2012, a bridge segment, which killed four people and injured twelve, one.
Expansion and future
The majority of the highway is constructed with two lanes plus emergency lane in each direction. Slow lanes are available with steep slopes. The 8 km long route Beharovce - Branisko Tunnel ( east portal ) is initially built only two lanes. The part between junctions Bratislava - Vajnory and Trnava (around 36 km) has three lanes in each direction, but without emergency lanes and is provided with " temporary " orange mark instead of the normal white, also shall there 5-19 clock a speed limit of 110 km / h The 500 -meter-long stretch between Autobahndreieck Petržalka and semi- junction Bratislava Incheba is expanded as a single stretch of motorway Slovakia achtstreifig.
The completion date for the entire route from Bratislava to Košice is uncertain. Particularly complex, the distance between Žilina and Ružomberok will be as numerous tunnels must be built.
Routes to Kosice, which are not yet under construction, should be carried out as PPP projects once. Of these, only the preparations were begun for the routes east of Dubná scale at Vrútky on October 16, 2009. These are the routes Dubná scale -Turany, Turany - Hubová, Hubová - Ivachnová Jánovce - Jablonov and Fričovce - Svinia with a total length of 75 km. The planned costs are about 2.1 billion euros. The completion was provided in 2012. The preparatory work on the 25 km long route south of Žilina with the nearly 8 km long Višňové tunnel began in February 2010, with the start of the actual construction was expected in August 2010. For this line, the construction period of four years and construction costs of 1.9 billion euros was provided. For the concession period of 30 years for the above routes, the Slovak government would pay about 12.7 billion euros.
On 2 September 2010 the new government (see parliamentary elections in Slovakia 2010) canceled the PPP projects for routes east of Vrútky, since despite several postponements ( ultimately by the end of August 2010) the construction companies could not secure financing. On 14 December 2010, the PPP project between Hričovské Podhradie and Vrútky was set, for the reason of high prices despite offered discounts. Although some project with the participation of private capital is not excluded, the government will now try, according to the Minister of Transport to carry out the construction primarily through state budget and EU funds.
On 20 June 2011, the construction of the section Spišský Štvrtok - Levoča has begun, with the expected commissioning in June 2014; According to the statement of the Minister of Transport should be after the construction of sections Levoča - Jablonov and Fričovce - Svinia to be by 2015 opened to traffic, and the tunnel Branisko get the second tube, the construction will not begin earlier than 2014. On 11 November 2011, the construction of the section Dubná scale began - Turany, with the expected construction period of three years. With the construction of the section Levoča - Jablonov ( early June 2012) is a 144 km long managed contiguous highway after the completion of all routes between Ivachnová and Prešov. To important buildings of the 9.5 km long section of the tunnel Šibenik (length 615 m) ( length 488 m, height 50 m ) is one and the Viaduct Spišský Hrhov, which is the highest bridge across the motorway. On 7 November 2013, the operator NDS as signed the contract for the construction of the line Hubová - Ivachnová ( bypass Ružomberok, 15.3 km ) with the construction of November 2013 to May 2017Vorlage: Future / in 3 years; but construction only began officially on 11 February 2014. since 2011, the public contest runs for the track Lietavská Lúčka - Dubná scale ( with the 7,460 m -long tunnel Višňové 13.5 miles), this is, however, affected by numerous delays. For the distance Hričovské Podhradie - Lietavská Lúčka ( 11.3 km ) was established in December 2013, a construction contract with a construction period from January 2014 to January 2018; Ovčiarsko ( 2,367 m) and Žilina ( 687 m) - - as part of this project, two tunnels and large bridges in Dolny Hričov ( 1,804 m) and Lietavská Lúčka built ( 1,081 m).
For the local bypass of Prešov (length 7,900 m ) is a construction period from 2015 to 2019Vorlage: Future / provided in 5 years. East of Košice should only remaining routes 2017Vorlage: Future / In 3 years ( Budimír - Bidovce ) 2020Vorlage: Future / In 5 years (up Pozdišovce ) or 2024Vorlage: are future / In 5 years, opened to traffic ( the Ukrainian border ).
Particularly controversial is the proposed section Turany - Hubová through the Great Fatra. Earlier it was planned with the 6 km long tunnel Korbeľka south of the Waag to lead the highway under the mountain, and thus bypass the bottleneck, since 2008 but is part of the Department of Transportation a surface variant with tunnels Rojkov (1.8 km) and Havran (2, 6 km), but much more bridges along the Waag enforced. This is contested by environmental protection organizations in question, especially in conjunction with the 15,000 years old peat bog Rojkov and a number of small-scale nature reserves to Kraľovany that belong to the Natura 2000 network. For this reason, the European Commission examined the environmental impact of the section and this variant has approved in December 2012, after the Ministry of Transport proposals were accepted for " reduction of ecological damage ." A landslide at Šútovo in April 2013 affected the planned route, so that further change is not excluded again to the tunnel Korbeľka. In this case, the planned to the 2015 start of construction would be delayed again.
April 10, 2006 ( Poprad, západ - Poprad východ, L = 6.230 km ) August 2005 ( Poprad, východ - Jánovce, L = 11.620 km )
December 6, 2008 ( Poprad, západ - Poprad, východ ) December 6, 2008 ( 1 track) / 3rd September 2009 ( 2 track) ( Poprad, východ - Jánovce )
June 25, 2012 ( Levoča - Jablonov, L = 9.541 km )
July 2015 ( Levoča - Jablonov )
April 1983 ( Ličartovce - Budimír, L = 10.500 km )
April 1988 ( Ličartovce - Budimír )