The various religious orders of Hinduism are usually, sometimes called Sampradaya also Pantha. Your members, so the monks and nuns, called sadhus or swamis. The Hindu religious can be subdivided according to the main directions of Hinduism itself: there are Vaishnavite and shivaitische Order, Shakti - Order and Order of Advaita Vedanta. Each of these main currents has numerous sub-groups, and there is no supreme religious authority, which represented the final authority for all these communities. The communities differ, therefore, more or less, both in their religious practice as well as in their philosophy and the doctrines. There are numerous characteristics of belonging to a particular order, so the face drawing ( tilaka ), the type of prayer beads ( Mala ) and some certain drawings of the upper body. Each group has a specific color of the monk's robe, special religious symbols worn by the monk with him, as well as their own greetings. There are also special religious code of conduct, which the monk has to follow.
- 2.1 Orthodox Shaiva Medal
- 2.2 Reformed Shaiva Medal
- 3.1 Dashanami Sampradaya 3.1.1 Dashanami Akhadas
In the Vaishnava there are 19 Orthodox subgroups and 33 Reformed Order; also three Anis of martial Naga Sadhus belong to the monastic ' schools ', the Akhadas. These are designed to protect the other orders and the faith community. There are 36 Tilakas in the Vaishnava sadhus, and 14 more body markings.
- Ramanuji (also Shri ) Sampradaya
- Nimbarki (also Namavat ) Sampradaya
- Brahma Madhva Gaudiya Sampradaya
- Brahma Madhva Sampradaya
- Vallabhacari Sampradaya
- Ramanandi (also Vairagi or Avadhuta ) Sampradaya
- Udasi Sampradaya
There are 12 Protestant groups, most of which were established in most of the 18th century, and often have strong local influence. Some of them have exceptional practices.
- Sakhi Sampradaya
- Mahanubhoa Pantha
- Harshachandi Pantha
- Kabira Pantha
The Naga Sadhu Brigades were 1650-1700 AD. established to defend the faith, both the Vaishnavas against the Shaiva and the Muslim armies. They are divided into companies ( anise ) and high schools ( Akhadas ). They belong among the holy men of India 's most revered. Initiation ( diksha ) is given only during Kumbh Melas. Vaishnava nagas start out as novices who are called Yatri ( traveler ). The Naga Babas are known for their nudity, they do not always maintained, however, demonstrate at sacred ceremonial occasions.
- Anise Digambara Ani
- Nirmohi Ani
- Nirvanee Ani
- Digambara Akhada Rama Digambara Akhada
- Shyama Digambara Akhada
In the Shaiva there are 8 " Orthodox" sub-groups and two main and Reformed groups. Shaivas have 24 different Tilakas and carry 11 different symbols as objects with it. Older groups are the Pashupatas that are dualists, and the Kapalikas.
Orthodox Shaiva Medal
- Gorakha Nath Pantha (also Nath Pantha )
- Aghori Pantha (also Aughara Pantha )
- Lingayata Sampradaya
- Karalingi Sampradaya
- Ganapathi Pantha
- Kapalika Pantha
- Kina Rama Pantha
Reformed Shaiva Medal
- Shivoham Pantha
- Sata Sain Pantha
The Dashanami Sampradaya ( lit. the tradition of the 10 names ) was founded in the 8th century by the great philosopher and scholar Shankara. He emerged from the attempt to reorganize the Hinduism and Hindu religious life and - to let grow stronger - especially toward Buddhism. The Dashanami Sampradaya is based on the position taken by Shankara Adavaita Vedanta, a mystical philosophy or alone PRIME, technical speaking, a monistic idealism. From a number of authors of the Dashanami Sampradaya is however seen as shivaitischer Order, as Shankara was born into a family Shivaite and had many directions of hatha yoga, a yoga tradition with a strong base in Dashanami Sampradaya, its roots in Shaivism. In fact, the affinity to Shaivism in religious practice is sometimes more pronounced than for the Vishuismus. In a Kumbh Mela, the members of Dashanami Sampradaya hold eg usually in the camp of the Shivaites, separated from the Vaishnavas. Often the worship of Isvara (Lord), a name for Shiva applies; However, the term Ishvara can also be used for Vishnu or Brahman. But it must not be overlooked that Shankara Advaita Vedanta not only formulated as an overarching philosophy of Hinduism, but also in religious practice put the emphasis on the equal co-existence of the various Hindu schools. So he writes to the tradition, for example, the Panchayatana Puja, the worship of the equal five main deities ( Shiva, Vishnu, Durga, Ganesha, Surya ) includes. The spiritual name of the members may have with respect to a variety of deities or ideal forces.
All Dashanami Medal conduct their tradition back to one of four "houses". These are the four master monasteries that were founded by direct disciples of Shankara, each of which, so to tradition, was sent in a different direction. They are:
- Jyotirmath (North)
- Puri ( East)
- Sringeri (South), and
- Dwaraka (west)
Furthermore, all members, at least purely nominal, one of the 10 "names" belong to; these are:
- Giri (mountain )
- Puri (city)
- Bharati ( Goddess of Learning )
- Vana (wood)
- Aranya (forest )
- Parvata ( Mountains)
- Sagara (sea )
- Tirtha ( place of pilgrimage, ford )
- Ashrama ( hermitage )
- Saraswati ( deity of knowledge, see Sarasvati )
Of Saraswati, Puri and Bharati traditionally associated with the Sringeri tradition, Tirtha and Ashrama with Dwaraka, Giri, Parvata and Sagara with Jyotirmath, and Vana and Aranya with Puri, but this association, as I said, only a purely nominal, and probably goes back to Shankara's attempt to integrate existing groups in his new Order.
Many modern organizations are also active often in the West, belong to different lineages within this large group of Dashanami Sampradaya: such as the Ramakrishna Mission (founded by Swami Vivekananda ), the Self-Realization Fellowship (founded by Paramahamsa Yogananda ) the Divine Life Society (founded by Swami Sivananda ), the Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres (founded by his disciple Swami Vishnu-devananda ), the Chinmaya Mission (est. v. Swami Chinmayananda ) and Transcendental meditation ( Swami Brahmananda Saraswati ).
These Naga Sadhus ( Naga = snake) were at the front line of the Indian resistance to the various Islamic invaders in the Middle Ages. Especially the Juna Akhada was involved in many battles against the British during their colonial rule 200 years. They also fought at the Shivaji's side against the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The Naga Babas of Shivaite tradition may Ganj (hashish ) smoking, and lead forth from this Shiva drinking the Halhal, the poison that emerged during the churning of the milk ocean at the beginning of creation, and so prevented the poisoning of the universe. Smoking is considered beneficial as meditation, if it happens in spiritual intention and the material is very pure. So it helps the sadhu to gain an inner distance of the world. However, the Vaishnavas reject such a practice strictly because it is considered unclean. It certainly helps some Sadhus also in severe ascetic practices, such as permanent standing ( with support, usually a kind of swing that is attached to a tree), or holding up an arm, which is usually maintained for a period of 12 years. These ascetic practices, which can be observed on Kumbh Melas, serve to overcome the physical bond. Often this vow be fulfilled in order to rid themselves of sins. However, not all religious advocate such practices. Vaishnava religious usually recommend devotional practices like japa, repeating a mantra, Shaiva religious additionally emphasize yoga exercises. Naga Sadhus of Dashanami - Order are usually naked or dressed only in a loin cloth, smeared their skin with holy ashes and this gives them an archaic appearance.
- Maha Nirvanee Akhada
- Niranjani Akhada
- Juna Akhada
- Akhada Atala
- Avahan Akhada
- Anand Akhada
- Nirvanee Akhada
- Hindu community