The German Federal Post Office (DBP ) was an 1950 furnished without legal capacity special Federal funds. She was by the German Federal Railroad first the second largest employer in the Federal Republic. Due to staff reductions at the track and increase in DBP, this order came in the early 1980s to. In 1985 it consisted of 543 200 employees. The German Federal Post Office was supporting the civilian telecommunications sovereignty.
In the first and second post- reform, the German Federal Post Office was dissolved in 1994. From it, the German stock corporations post, German Telekom and German Postbank emerged.
The precursor of the German Federal Post Office was established in 1947 as the successor of the empire under the name German postal mail. With the enactment of the Basic Law, the legal basis for the administration had been created as a special fund of the Federation, for which the federal government had the sole legislative competence. 1950 was renamed to " German Federal Post Office ," also a delineation of the Deutsche Post ( the German Democratic Republic ) to create. By 1989, the German Federal Post Office was a government agency that has not been managed according to business principles, but should be self-financing ( see also below); it was the " upscale Kameralistik " is used, ie in addition to a usual in public budgets pure input and output part there was also an asset and a liability part.
As of 1989, the unified German Federal Post Office, the German Federal Post Office Postbank and the German Federal Post Office Telekom was the first postal reform in the German Federal Post Office postal service split. Although these three sub-companies were nominally a board, they remained authorities and continued to be under the supervision of the Federal Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Despite extended powers in the economic management the usual house -keeping principles of public administration kept mostly valid.
Pursuant to Article 27 of the Unification Treaty, the German Post ( GDR ) was incorporated into the German Federal Post Office. In the new Lander were instead of Oberpostdirektion directorates in the post various directorates postal service, postal bank, the Central Office Postbank Postbank and the branches and set up the directorates in the area of telecom telecommunications service.
Legal basis for the administrative activities of the German Federal Post Office was the Post Office Act ( PostVwG ), which replaced the imperial post Finance Act 1924. The central financial policy objective was, as since 1924, securing the economic viability. The political objective determination was but the economic always superior. So said § 2 PostVwG that the Federal Post " is managed according to the principles of the policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular the transport, economic, financial and social policies " and thereby " to take account of the interests of the German economy " is.
Other requirements were the Postal Act, which regulated the services in the field of postal service, Post Travel Service and the Postal Savings Service, the Telecommunications Installations Act and the Telegraph Act pioneered for the telecommunication services and various regulations issued on the basis of the postal administration law (eg postal fee schedule, mail order, telegraphic order, telecommunications regulations, etc.).
For the following tasks, the German Federal Post Office was responsible:
- Construction and operation of cable television network
- Operation of broadcasting transmission facilities with the exception of the transmitter of the first television program
- Letter service
- Data services
- Make your own news and television satellites, even for program delivery to cable networks
- Telecommunication services
- Parcel service
- Post Travel Service
- Post Pension Service
- Postal service (later giro service)
- Postal Savings Service
- Post Newspaper Service
- (Also called message service) telegraph service
Some services were only recorded during the existence of the DBP (eg data services) or set (for example, Post Travel Service ( Kraftpost ), which was submitted to the German Federal Railways).
Prior to founding the GEZ the post also took before the collection of license fees. In addition, other services have been offered (eg, money orders with cash deposits and cash ), but belonged formally to any of the above services. The same applies to the days with long queues at the counters when the pensions or unemployment benefits were due.
Were perceived by the German Federal Post Office and other services for which it was best suited for the area-wide distribution, but not part of the actual range of responsibilities of the post:
- Delivery of change control brands and trademarks pension
- Implementation of formal deliveries ( delivery order )
Post notification and post contract protest directed by the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure and not by postal legislation, only to be paid; fees were anchored in the post of Fees
- Implementation of bill protests (post protest order).
Layout and Organization
From the foundation to the first postal reform
The Federal Post Office was established by the usual in the German Federal three-step principle: the upper stage was the Federal Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications ( often referred to simply as the Post Ministry or short as BPM called ), the middle level consisted of head post directorates including the equivalent centralized Government Post Technical central Office ( PTZ), telecommunications Technical central Office ( FTZ ) (both based in Darmstadt ) and the social Office of the German Federal Post Office ( based in Stuttgart ), the lower level were post offices, post office giro institutions ( later renamed the post office giro institutions ) and telephone exchanges. In addition, there were technical tasks further offices such as the telecommunications stuff offices responsible for the repair of all equipment that had to do with the Telecommunications ( phone boxes, phones, communication devices, etc.), were responsible. Furthermore, there were postal savings offices ( offices in Hamburg and Munich), the care of the run postal savings books.
Instead of a Oberpostdirektion the country's post office was established in West Berlin. This also issued its own postage stamps. These stamps were valid but also throughout the country, this was the other way around as is the case (since 1949 and 1950 respectively, first officially as " not objectionable "). Stamps from West Berlin are identified by the word " German Federal Post Office Berlin" instead of the usual inscription " German Federal Post" recognizable.
At the organizational structure of the imperial post nothing has changed. On the lower level there was the post office, branch post offices, post offices I and II and post- aid services and as a special offices, the post office giro, postal savings bank offices ( since 1 January 1939) and the workshops of the post.
On January 1, 1959, the "Guidelines on the organization of post offices (V ) " were issued by the Federal Ministry of Postal Services. In post offices, a distinction between the post office with administrative services ( post office (V)) and the post office. The smaller post offices, post offices and post assistance agencies, now were subject to a post office (V ) and belonged to his jurisdiction.
The post office (V ) was a lower federal agency as an independent ministry and was headed by a Chief Administrator. The name of the post office (V ) was applied only to distinguish the internal commerce. Similar to the imperial post, the post offices (V) and post offices were classified on the basis of scores in groups.
By the end of the Federal Postal herein has not been any changes.
In the 1990s, then, the Central Office for mobile ( ZfM, based in Münster ) was established. It was dissolved by the federal post 31 December 1993, after the Board of General TELEKOM had decided to let the tasks in the field of cellular communication, perceive through the Detention Mobil GmbH, a subsidiary of the Federal Post Office in the future. The Central Office had to discuss, among other things, the task of citizens about the mobile regardless of the provider ( the only supplier in addition to the federal post office was Mannesmann mobile). Furthermore, there was the National Board of Approvals in Telecommunications ( ZZF, based in Saarbrücken), which in September 1992 was to become the Federal Office for Telecommunications Approvals and the University of Applied Sciences of the German Federal Post Office in Berlin and Dieburg. Furthermore, the German Federal Post possessed the Telecommunications Emergency service (see below) and other units of the self-protection authorities, but their equipment went far beyond that of other authorities (such as fire trucks and rescue vehicles ). The self-protection authorities of the Federal Post Office was therefore more akin to a plant fire.
From the first to the second postal reform Postal Reform ( Privatization )
As part of the Post Reform I further levels within the Federal Postal created, others, such as the main post directorates, were at least partially new fields. The individual divisions postal service, post office bank and telecommunication services were each led by a General who led the Board of Directors of the respective area. All areas, the Board of the Federal Post was purposed. In each division, there was a supervisory board. The main post directorates remained, but were, as the Federal Ministry responsible for sovereign tasks in the first place, while the operational tasks were located in the three divisions. However, sovereign functions, such as radio direction finding, postal orders, etc., were protest continues to run the business units.
In the new Lander were instead of Oberpostdirektion directorates from 3 October 1990 in the field postal service postal service directorates, at Postbank, the Central Office Postbank Postbank and the branches and directorates Telekom established at Telekom.
Company social facilities
Social services were the Postbeamtenkrankenkasse ( PBeaKK ), the Federal Post- Betriebskrankenkasse ( BPBetrKK, today German BKK), Versorgungsanstalt the Federal Post Office (VAP ), the recovery work of the German Post Office ( EWBP ), the Federal Post- execution authority for accident insurance, the central office of Occupational Safety at the Federal Office of Posts and telecommunications, postal uniform store, the welfare service of the Deutsche Bundesbank, the Post Office pension fund, the National Academic Foundation and the tape - magazine " the Bridge".
The Postbeamtenkrankenkasse, Versorgungsanstalt the Federal Post Office, the recreation program of the German Federal Post Office, the post office uniform store, the welfare service of the Deutsche Bundesbank, the Post Office pension fund, the National Academic Foundation and the editor of the magazine " The Bridge", among others by the Federal Agency for Post and Telecommunications ( BAnstPT ) continued. The accident insurance ( Federal Post - execution authority for accident insurance and the central office of Occupational Safety and Health ) were combined and transferred to the Post and Telekom Accident Insurance Fund. The German postal company health insurance was continued as company health insurance with limited circle of members and later transferred to the successor company health insurance companies.
Self -help organizations of employees
Furthermore, there were self-help devices, namely postal savings and loan associations (now PSD Bank), insurance associations, associations of the postal staff and institution for the promotion of international understanding, Association of Radio Amateurs in Telecommunications and Post ( VFDB ) and the Post sports clubs. These facilities were continued after privatization by the Federal Agency.
As the first postal reform, the German Federal Post Office was a "public company" divided in 1989 into three so-called:
- German Federal Post Office Postbank
- German Federal Post Office Postal Service
- German Federal Post and Telecom
However, these companies continued to work together under the roof of the post office, constitute a part of funds and were not so far on their own. The center authorities would continue to exist, however, de-mergers were partially made, for example, in the telecommunications billing service, which was historically settled conditionally at the data centers of the postal system, and some in the post of Technology Central Office.
The divisions were privatized under the second postal reform in 1994. It emerged:
- German Post AG in the field of German Federal Post Office Postal Service ( yellow post )
- German Postbank AG in the field of German Federal Post Office Postbank (blue post)
- German Telekom AG in the field of German Federal Post and Telecom ( Gray Mail )
The - now renamed - Federal Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications was responsible for regulatory tasks in the postal sector and in telecommunications. After the dissolution of the Ministry took over from 1 January 1998, the first under the name Federal Office for Post and Telecommunications ( BAPT ) created Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Posts (Reg TP, now Federal Network Agency ) the functions of the central authorities. Tasks of the Ministry and some tasks of intermediate authorities were transferred to the Ministry of Finance. Some tasks in the telecommunications sector, for which the Telecommunication Central Office was responsible (especially in the area of public safety radio ), were transferred to the Ministry of the Interior.
For officers and supply legal responsibilities of remaining with the company postal clerk, the Federal Institute for Posts and Telecommunications German Federal Post Office ( BAPost ) was established.
Colors, the breastplate and flags of the Federal Post
The term "gray mail" telecommunications service comes from the early days of the Federal Post: In the 1950s and 1960s, the vehicles of the Fernmeldebaudienstes in tent gray (RAL 7010 ) were held, the other vehicles of the Telecommunications Service ( repair service, radio measurement and peildienst, telex etc. ) and other postal vehicles since 1945 in honey Yellow ( RAL 1005). Following the zeitgeist replaced in 1971 Cadmium Yellow (RAL 1021), the comparatively pale honey yellow. Because of the high heavy metal fraction was 1980, a change to the still common broom yellow (RAL 1032).
As a special feature in 1957 some emerald green (RAL 6001 ) were added vehicles Saar post.
The Federal Post Office used instead of the usual service flag of the federal authorities, the German postal flag, which consisted of the German flag with post horn on the red stripes. This flag was derived from the Imperial postal flag. As insignia on uniforms the post horn was used in yellow.
Ships that carried on behalf of the German postal mail, put on the foretop mail signal flag.
Post signal flag for seagoing vessels
Posthorn the Federal Post Office (1950-1978)
Sleeve Patches of the Federal Postal Uniform
At the post office Spiekeroog attached the breastplate (until 1995 )
Made after the model of the mountain cap service cap of the Federal Post
Vehicle registration number of the German Federal Post Office
Vehicles of the German Federal Post Office led to the privatization of the vehicle registration number BP, which (from the 1980s four distinctive digits) consisted of two sets of numbers of the BP XX- YYY scheme. The marks were distinguished by postal services and telecommunication services. The keypad BP 10 to BP 59 was assigned to the postal service, the numeric keypad BP 60 to BP 99 the telecommunications service. In addition, the vehicles of telecommunications were up in the 1980s gray, later yellow with a red line and had the door marked " telecommunications service ", later " TELEKOM ". The numbering schemes were uniformly established by the Postal Technology Central Office.
The vehicles were directly approved by the competent regional directorate, sealed the mark with their official seal. The main post directorates shared the approval with the Federal Motor Vehicle Office. Vehicles of the Federal Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications were approved with the indicator for the federal "BD".
Valid the indicator " BP " remained until 1997, although these characteristics were changed after the privatization in 1995, at least at the Telekom within weeks coverage on civilian license plates. Much of the telecom fleets initially received Bonner indicator, due to the seat of the corporate headquarters in Bonn, while vehicles of the technical departments were admitted in Münster. Vehicles of the postal service were allowed their own location in the rule.
Since 30 April 2006, the label " BP " is issued to the Federal Police.
Post Travel Service
- Main article: Kraftpost
In the history of the post, the roots of the post- travel services are. This took - like the railway coaches of the German Federal Railroad - public transport in rural areas mostly true. Historically, it is often hard to fathom why a supra-local line has now served by the post office or train. The early 1980s, however, was aware of the policy that the public sector made here for the same task different functional carriers with different legal bases - here the German Federal Railroad ( with dark red or red-black- white buses ) with private law contracts of carriage, there the German Federal Post Office ( with yellow buses ) with a public use after the post travel policy. It took the consequences and united both services under the umbrella of the German Federal Railways, the concerned postman could decide whether to stay or postman wanted to be workers.
Post Pension Service
The post- retirement service was a historically grown service, which resulted from the nationwide dissemination of the post. The German Federal Post Office took - in both calculation and payment of pensions, which regularly led to the number of days of pensions to long queues at the counters of post offices - in behalf of the State Insurance Office (FVO ), the Federal Insurance Institute for Salaried Employees ( BFA ) and the Federal Miners. Increases with increasing introduction of cashless payments and the gradual abolition Barer payments of pensions ( over the counter or money order ), the significance of post- retirement service from the switch area, the calculation of the monthly pensions remained but until privatization in the Federal Post Office. The calculation of pensions is not the ( only or one-time ) fixing the pensions (more precisely, the contributions and creditable periods as well as the earnings points ) are confused, which was not part of the postal service pension.
- The East German counterpart was the German Post.
- Part of the German Federal Post Office was the emergency telecommunications for disaster relief and defense.
- For Federal Post included the operating backup service, which was a kind of police and educate postal thefts and should prevent sabotage of telecommunications equipment. The officials of the central, upscale and partly higher service were depending on national legal regulation auxiliary officers of the Public Prosecutor's Office (now the investigative personnel ). The operation backup service was disbanded with the privatization of the Federal Post.
- There were unions specifically for the staff of the German Federal Post Office, the two largest were the German postal union (DPG ) ( went in 2001 with others in Verdi on ) and the German postal union.
- The processing of mail in railway carriages was designated as railway mail.
- Telecommunication towers of reinforced concrete are available as standardized so-called type towers and as a special towers.
- The German Federal Post Office also operated television and communication satellites such as TV - SAT and DFS Copernicus.
- Even today find themselves at the entrance of many former departments of the federal post office signs or labels of the Federal Post Office still. Also on buildings nor eagle, carved in metal or stone, attached.