Digital Object Identifier

A Digital Object Identifier ( DOI; German Digital Object Identifier ) is a unique and permanent identifier for digital physical, digital, or abstract objects. It is used mainly for online articles from scientific journals. The DOI system is based on the Handle System and is simply expressed comparable with ISBN and ISSN, but goes through its integrated localization function beyond.

Identification and localization of digital objects

Digital objects can be on the Internet via the address at which they were stored, appeal. One possibility is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL ) that under the condition that the address is permanent. In general, however, the Internet addresses are more or less short-lived ( see also Error 404).

DOI creates a system that identifies an object itself - not the location or resource is filed under it ( currently ). To provide access to identified objects, the International DOI Foundation ( IDF), as operator of the DOI system provides a system that the DOI (or ) current location (s ) of the document assigns. That is, can the DOI to each digital object is a URL to be assigned. If the location (ie the URL) changes of a digital object ( eg because the content provider 's server restructured ), this has no effect on the DOI, it must be that the assignment in the DOI database to be updated. When addressing a document using the DOI redirect to the URL under which the object is currently available is done, or when the object is stored in several places, to an overview of the associated URLs. The DOI Foundation stores according to their own privacy information the following points: "Our logs collect and store only domain names or IP addresses, dates and times of visits, and the pages visited. "


DOIs always start with 10 and have the form 10.ORGANISATION/ID where organizations get (especially publishers ) are each assigned a unique number can be assigned and the ID itself ( starting at 1000 ). Different organizations have different schemas here: Some use the ISBN, sometimes objects are simply numbered.

As a Uniform Resource Identifier DOIs doi schema labeling: prefixed, so that it takes the form doi: 10.ORGANISATION/ID have.

In a publication which is identified by a DOI (eg doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020449 ), additional DOI turn identify parts; so in the example above to find a picture with doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020449.g001. This can be found very often in articles in a journal or chapters in a book. However, one can not generally assume that you can shorten a DOI at one point or slash to go to such a " parent object ", since there is no set pattern here.


The DOI 10.1000/182 identifies the document 182 in the organization of 1000 ( DOI Foundation itself). It is to the DOI Handbook. It can be found on the Internet, either by the DOI in the designated input mask ( DOI resolver) enters the DOI Foundation, or by directly the URL

Calling. These removed any existing prefix doi: and replaces it with the URL of the proxy server DOI The website thus found is not typically the referenced document itself, but a page on the corresponding document, with the option to download it or purchase.


For many ( but not all) scientific articles in particular the natural sciences DOIs are available. The DOI of an article can be found at the publisher competent and is usually found on the official website of the publisher to the article. In printed articles usually a traditional source is preferred to specify a DOI is unusual. If linking an article on a website, it offers itself but to to use the URL to the DOI proxy server ( ) so that the link remains accurate even when the websites of the change publisher. Furthermore, one can directly read off from this URL the DOI.

Some bibliographic management software can import the metadata of an item by entering the DOI. If an article is a DOI is specified, the associated web page can be displayed many times directly.

The Technical Information Library used 2005 as the first institution DOIs for the registration of research data sets.