Dipterocarpus retusus, Illustration

The wings of fruit plants ( Dipterocarpaceae ) are a family in the order of Malvenartigen ( Malvales ). Fossils are present at least since the Tertiary: For example Anisopteroxylon and Dryobalanoxylon from sites in the central plains of Myanmar in Burma ( Middle Miocene ). Once in the north of India ( Gujarat state ) was found around 50 million year old amber, which is attributed to resin of Flügelfruchtgewächsten, it must be assumed that have been covered with trees from this family already in the Eocene, at least in North India extended Flächens.


They are mostly evergreen trees, some species throw during the dry season a portion of their leaves. Some species are very resinous. There are small trees, but some species are in the Asian lowland rain forests, the largest trees. Typical of most species is their high straight (at least 10 m in height ) unbranched stem. Often the bark is cracked. Stipules ( stipules ) are ( quickly falling in some species ) are present. The alternate, stalked leaves are simple, entire and leathery.

The hermaphroditic, flowers are radial symmetry fünfzählig; they are mostly large. Per flower, there are five sepals and petals, usually 15 ( 5-110 ) stamens and two to three intergrown ( synkarpe ) carpels. The ovary is upper constant, each ovary compartment contains two to four ovules. There are trained seeded indehiscent fruit with a woody pericarp (nuts ). The sepals remain until the fruit ripening, often increase in size from two to five during ripening. The fruits are surrounded by the mostly two to five enlarged sepals, they are the typical long wings ( name of the whole family ).

The trees form the typical buttress roots, as they are found in many tropical trees. Some species form the top floor of the rainforests, the lower part of stems rarely branch, at their head, they usually form only a sparse crown. Pollination is mostly by insects.


Species of this family dominate the original Asian rainforests. They are hardwood (also known as Keruing ). These species are the main reason for the depletion in the Indo- Malayan jungles. Its wood makes for example 85 % of Indonesian timber exports from. Man tries to reforest with these types.

Terms of resin often produced in large quantities ( in Borneo it is called " damar "). It is used for example for coloring at Batik and as binders for water-soluble colors. Dammaharz from the südasiasischen kind Vateria indica provides raw material for binders in paints and varnishes, embedding medium for microscopic preparations and for paving.

Gurjun balsam and Gurjunbalsamöl is obtained from wing fruit tree species ( Dipterocarpus ), other names for the products are: Gardjan or Gardschan Balm, East Indian Kopaivabalsam, Balsamum Gurjunae, Balsamum Copaivae ostindicum, Balsamum Capivi, Balsamum Dipterocarpi, Balsamum Garnae. It creates a cavity in the trunk of the tree and lights in a fire. This leakage of gurjun balsam is stimulated. It is a raw material for perfume.


Mast years is a phenomenon that occurs in species of this family, but also in other tree - families. Trees of a species bloom at the same time and produce fruit for several months. This has far- reaching consequences for the ecosystem, because at that time also the pollinating insects multiply rapidly, which in turn form the food source for other animals. The fruit eaters multiply. In the following years, no or very few fruits are formed. The benefit to the plant is that, although the fruit eaters but still saturate due to the high number of seeds and seedlings enough left over that secure the survival of the species. It is known that this phenomenon by the ENSO events (El Niño / Southern Oscillation ) is triggered. By cutting down the old fruiting trees of this part of the ecosystem is no longer intact.

For example, the lowland dipterocarp mixed forests are at altitudes from 0 to about 750 meters, the most species-rich and ecologically most complex forests of Brunei, 13 to 24 % of the trees are in dipterocarp species.


You have a predominantly paläotropische dissemination, often they are found in the Neotropics. One focus of the biodiversity they have in the Indo - Malaysian region.


The Dipterocarpaceae family was erected in 1825 by Carl Ludwig Blume Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch in Indië, p 222. A synonym for Dipterocarpaceae flower is Monotaceae Kosterm ..

The wings of fruit plants ( Dipterocarpaceae ) family is divided into three subfamilies and 17 genera with 680 species:

  • Subfamily Dipterocarpoideae Burnett: With 13 genera and about 650 species in the Indo - Malaysian area: Anisoptera Korth. With about ten species that occur between Bangladesh and New Guinea. Some species of wood is used under the trade name Krabak.
  • Cotylelobium Pierre: With six species found in Sri Lanka and in the western Malaysia's.
  • Two wings fruit trees, fruit trees wings ( Dipterocarpus CFGaertn. ): With about 70 species in Southeast Asia.
  • Dryobalanops C.F.Gaertn. With seven species; they occur in Malaysia's.
  • Hopea Roxb. With about 105 species.
  • Neobalanocarpus PSAshton: Is a monotypic genus on the Malay Peninsula: Neobalanocarpus heimii ( King) P.S.Ashton
  • Upuna borneensis Sym.
  • Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dyer ) F.Heim; it is found only in the Seychelles
  • Subfamily Monotoideae Gilg: With three genera and about 30 species in Africa, Madagascar and South America: Monotes A.DC.: With about 26 species that occur in tropical Africa and Madagascar.
  • Marquesia Gilg: With four Artem that occur in tropical Africa
  • Pseudomonotes ACLondoño, E.Alvarez & Forero: Is a monotypic genus in the Colombian Amazon basin: Pseudomonotes tropenbosii ACLondoño, E.Alvarez & Forero.
  • Subfamily Pakaraimoideae Maguire, Ashton & de Zeeuw: It's a monotypical taxon with only one type: Pakaraimaea Maguire & P.S.Ashton: Pakaraimaea roraimae: home is the Guiana Highlands in South America.


  • Description of the family of Dipterocarpaceae in APWebsite. (Section Description, systematics and use)
  • Description of the family of Dipterocarpaceae in L. Watson and MJ of DELTA Dallwitz. ( Description section )
  • Xi -wen Li, Jie Li & Peter S. Ashton: Dipterocarpaceae in the Flora of China, Volume 13, 2007, p 48: Online. ( Description section )
  • David John Mabberley: Mabberley 's Plant -Book. A portable dictionary of plants, Their classification and uses. 3rd ed Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4