Discourse analysis is a generic term for the social, language policy or historiographical analysis of discourse phenomena. Depending on what is regarded as a discourse, are there different approaches.
General examines the relationship between linguistic discourse analysis and action spoken form, as well as the relationship between linguistic and social action, in particular institutional structures.
While we are interested in the social sciences in general, for cross-situational orders of the production of meaning is from a linguistic point of view the definition of discourse remarkable ( as a pragmatic phenomenon ) from the text ( as a linguistic structure of discourse, which is being investigated, among other in the text linguistics).
- 3.1 For individual aspects
- 3.2 Related Concepts
Different understandings of " discourse "
- Michel Foucault presented with his L' ordre du discours (1974 ) the traditional intellectual history of the question as the center of his considerations is not the knowing subject, but in fact handed down statements are that would have produced the modern subjectivity only. But Foucault did not create a method, but put his theoretical considerations foundations for a new way of thinking, an explicitly positivist research program that will be applied and reflected in the literature, sociology and increasingly in the history of science.
- In France in particular contributed to the discourse researcher Michel Pêcheux to advancing the methodological implementation of an empirically oriented discourse analysis. Given different idea of schools may be of a uniform procedure of the question.
- The embossed in Germany by Karl- Otto Apel and Jürgen Habermas 's discourse theory is not to be confused with the style similar to Foucault and influenced by postmodern thinking discourse theory. Your known under the terms " discourse ethics ", " discourse theory of law " and " consensus theory of truth " school of thought is connected to thinking of modernity and tried their achievements against Foucault's analysis is extremely critical to preserve. From this flow also some criticism of Foucault's discourse analysis stems (Hans -Ulrich Wehler, Herbert Schnädelbach, Urs Marti et al ).
- Herbert Schnädelbach created his monumental work reflection and discourse (1977 ) discourse analysis a methodological tools. At the level of pragmatic Sinnexplikationen the Schnädelbachsche discourse analysis reconstructs the respective discourse object in the form of set -like material contents in order to determine their validity ( which Foucault leave open) to allow even and especially among the (post-) modern conditions of a discourse plurality.
Discourse analysis in historiography
The historical discourse analysis is based on a dual mediation of history. Firstly, by sources, on the other hand by their representation ( in history or historical scientific papers ). History is always mediated by sign systems and is therefore always constructed by precisely these meaningful (character) constructions raises the subject of their investigation - in other words, historical events, structures and processes are inextricably linked to their representation. History is accessible only in mediated form, ie as "re- presented reality." Thus, the discourse analysis traces the forms and rules of representation.
Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences
The social science discourse research examines the rules and regularities of discourse, its possibilities for the construction of reality, its roots in society and its historical changes. It will in particular related to the social and institutional contexts in which statements of discourse emerge, as well as on the organization of statements, that is, according to the principles of arrangement. The research interest is focused in particular on the existence of such statements. ( Why take these statements on Why in this form and in these contexts? ) Discourse analysis therefore not intended in its entirety to understand a ( literary) text and to interpret such as the hermeneutics - but their methods are in the research process used can. The discourse analysis, it is also about discourse formations (structures, practices ) that can pass through it through a variety of texts.
In contrast to other approaches of social science that deals with language employ ( for example, the sociology of language, or ethnomethodologically -depth conversation analysis ) targeting social science discourse analysis does not aim to investigate the use of language with respect to its socio-structural formations. In addition, it also is not about to find ideal conditions for reasoning processes with reference to the developed by Jürgen Habermas discourse ethics. The focus is rather the institutional regulation of practices and their performative statement, wirklichkeitskonstituierende power.
A perspective of social science discourse research that has in recent years special ( well beyond the narrow confines of the social sciences beyond ) found attention is developed by the sociologist Reiner Keller sociological discourse analysis. Keller here combines basic insights of the phenomenological depth, everyday secular-oriented theory of knowledge by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann with the discourse theory of Michel Foucault to investigate assuming social practices and processes of communicative construction, transformation and stabilization symbolic orders, together with their consequences.
The following aspects can be found in the social science discourse analysis attention:
- Institutional framework / context ( eg, author, medium, event background )
- Text interface (design, units of meaning, structuring Offeree topics )
- Linguistically - rhetorical means ( analysis of argumentative strategies, implications and allusions, logic and composition, collective symbolism ( " imagery " ), idioms, vocabulary, style, actors, reference sheets ... )
- Content - ideological statements: image of man of society, ideas of future, technology, etc.
- Interpretation: Systematic analytical representation of a discourse fragment after treatment of the material. The individual elements are related to each other.
Central categories of analysis are the discourse strands of discursive events, levels of discourse and discursive positions.
Discourse analysis based on Foucault
Dominique Maingueneau, representative of a linguistic discourse analysis in France describes four characteristics of a style similar to Foucault discourse analysis:
Such a discourse analysis further describes:
- The discourse - immanent order
- The mediumship (each medium 's inherent forms of representation. )
- The polysemy of language.
Other theories and concepts
On individual aspects
The analysis of interviews and public discourse can rely in some aspects to the following concepts:
- Speech act
- Interjections and Responsive
- Repair mechanism
- Speaker change
- Theme - rheme structure
- Conversation analysis
- Interpretation framework
- Ethnography of speaking
- Conversation analysis
- Objective Hermeneutics
- Knowledge Sociological Discourse Analysis