Diving chamber

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Under decompression is meant an airtight and pressure-resistant container for the controlled lowering and increasing the air pressure ( (re) compression and decompression ). It is usually made ​​of steel, rare even for limited pressure applications of tear-resistant fabric. The decompression chamber serves professional divers after use for proper adaptation to the atmospheric air pressure to prevent decompression sickness ( the bends ). Staying in the decompression chamber can be several hours, days or weeks after long and deep diving operations.

Some of the chambers are mounted on special ships that are designed and built specifically for deep sea diving missions.

Injured divers must as soon as possible in the decompression chamber, where under increased absolute pressure of 1.8 bar initially pure oxygen is breathed. ( High overall pressure on the and in the whole body, at low nitrogen partial pressure of ideally zero in Einatemgas. ) While the pressure in the decompression chamber is lowered slowly, which increased by diving nitrogen content in the body and blood can be better separated. If this fails, evolve very likely the symptoms of decompression sickness ( decompression sickness, gas embolism ) because of the nitrogen on the surface of the solution in the blood plasma passes and disintegrates due to the lower ambient pressure in the gas phase. The resulting bubbles can clog important blood vessels and bring the underlying tissue to die.

The Federal Training and Research Institute of the DLRG operates in Berlin a decompression chamber with underlying diving tower, can collect in the divers ' wet ' Tiefenrausch experience.

The medical treatment of various diseases, for the treatment of decompression sickness in divers, therapeutic pressure chambers (HBO hyperbaric oxygen therapy ) may be used. As part of hyperbaric oxygen therapy ( hyperbaric oxygenation ) are compared to decompression chambers more elaborate pressure chamber systems for use, for example, in chamber pressure centers that are organized and certified German pressure chamber centers in the association.

Throughout Germany there are about 30 pressure chambers, of which 8 with 24-hour standby. But among them are a 5- pressure chambers with a 24- hour standby, can provide the care patients: Murnau, Berlin, Munich, Wiesbaden and Hall.

Such emergencies include:

  • Decompression sickness
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning as a result of flue gas formation with incomplete combustion processes (fires, defective heating systems, indoor grilling; Shisha )
  • Gas gangrene infection
  • Arterial gas embolism.

Basically, all pressure chambers can treat these diseases, but only the 5 emergency centers mentioned above have special equipment to provide the often life-threatening condition of patients adequately and to treat then. Due to technical modifications of medical devices, even mechanically ventilated patients in the hyperbaric environment is no problem

The modern chambers for use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy ( HBO) are very different from the narrow Einpersonenkammern ( the so-called Snow White Coffin ) of the start time. They can accommodate 12 seated persons (sometimes even more) and for lying patients. Special medical equipment also works under overpressure conditions. For your safety, patients are monitored with video cameras, intercom systems and sensors.

The commonly treated in medical hyperbaric chambers indications are:

  • Diabetic foot ulcers - chronic refractory to treatment despite extensive therapy
  • Bone necrosis / Knochenmarksödemsyndrome / Ahlbaeck's disease
  • Chronic intractable osteomyelitis, otitis externa nekrotikans ( malignant )
  • Sudden hearing loss with / without tinnitus, acute acoustic trauma - acute acoustic trauma
  • Irradiation effects on bone, intestine and bladder etc.
  • Crush injuries
  • Uncontrollable infections

The alerting the individual pressure chambers with 24-hour readiness via the responsible rescue coordination centers of the cities.

Chamber means here not a cuboid walled room, but a tightly closable, pressure-resistant vessel. Pressure chambers are suitably designed as lying, elongated cylindrical steel vessel with slightly gewölbeten ends to withstand well over pressure from the inside, but possibly also from the outside and can be checked as a pressure vessel recurring technical. In small pressure chambers may be well a patient, larger exhibit space saving on a row of seats, something flat space for movement and folding chairs. The hatch in one end of the boiler is locked from the inside with a lid. Equipment, medical equipment and clothing have to work up to about 9- fold increased oxygen pressure fire-safe at elevated pressure and compared with standard air. A mobile pressure chamber can be operated as a dip application, or the location of a mine accident.