Dmanisi (Georgian დმანისი ) is a town in southern Georgia in the region of Lower Kartli, which lies about 85 km southwest of the capital, Tbilisi. Dmanisi Dmanisi is the administrative center of the municipality. Their heyday was recorded in the 12th century. World recognition of the site by the found since 1991, 1,8 million year old hominin fossils from Dmanisi.
Dmanisi is located in front of the Javakheti mountain range on a plateau at the mouth of the river Pinesauri into the river Maschawera to 1171 m. Nearby is the village of Patara Dmanisi is located.
The Dmanisi plateau was already known before 1991 by thousands of animal fossils, which served as index fossils for the " Upper Villanium " in Central Europe, an era before 2.5 to 1.3 million years ago. Since 1991, the plateau was made famous by paleontological evidence, where on a treasure area of only 150 square meters to date, over 50 body parts of the skeleton and stone artifacts were discovered, which can be dated to an age of 1.75 million years. There are efforts to make the excavation site record as a cultural monument in the list of UNESCO World Heritage.
2001 scientists dug the Georgian Academy of Sciences and the Roman-Germanic Central Museum, Mainz, from the skull of a 1.8 million years old early human. It was the oldest so far secured Fund of the genus Homo outside of the African continent. The discussion of whether these represent a late Homo habilis or even a new species ( "Homo georgicus " ) to an early Homo erectus, is not yet complete. Excavation director was initially Professor Léo Gabounia and after his death one of his students, the general director of the Georgian National Museum, David Lordkipanidze.
The historical name of the area around Dmanisi was Baschkitscheti. The town of Dmanisi was inhabited by a Christian city, which was situated on the ancient Silk Road between Byzantium and commercial centers in Armenia and Persia. It was built in the 5th century at the latest and was protected by a fortress.
Among the medieval ruins, the remains of a Bronze Age settlement were discovered in the meantime.
In September 2009, important parts of the excavation areas were covered by a modern Holz-/Stahl-Konstruktion and this at the same time set up observation areas for visitors. Also neighboring Bronze Age and medieval excavation areas were made accessible by boardwalks for visitors. The plan is also a visitor center.
1989, a branch of the Georgian National Museum was established to preserve the excavations and shall make available to the public. It presents a collection of medieval ceramics, glass, metalwork and coins. Found in Dmanisi prehistoric bones of animals and humans are shown in State Simon Janashia Museum in Tbilisi.