Doha (Arabic الدوحة ad Dauha, DMG ad Dauha, in the dialect of ad - Doha for " The Cove" ) is the capital of Qatar and is situated on the Persian Gulf. The population was 521 283 in April 2010. In the agglomeration Doha (April 2010 ) 796 947 people live. Doha is growing rapidly along with only nine kilometers from the city Ar - Rayyan. The city hosts the Doha International Airport, important parts of the oil and fishing industries, as well as with the " Education City " an area for research and education.
While the barren peninsula was probably crossed by nomadic Bedouins for thousands of years, it has established a city in 1850 as " Al- bida ". Al- Wadschba, a fortress in the southwest of Doha, was built in 1882 by ar - Rayyan and was in the following year the scene of the battle, in which the people of Qatar on the side of the Allies Sheikh Qasim fought the Ottoman Empire under the leadership of the British and the foundation for its independence laid.
In the following period of British rule, the city was the capital of the Protectorate in 1916 and Qatar remained after independence in 1971 in this function. As an outward sign of power gained the fortress al -Kut in 1917 in the city center of Sheikh Abdullah Al Thani bin Qasim built.
Which began still under British protection in 1949 oil exports from Doha Qatar established the new prosperity. The majority of the investment going to the capital, where are home to almost half of the country's population. In 1969, commissioned in Government House, the seat of British colonial officials, is now referred to as the most famous landmark of Qatar.
Education, Culture, Sports
With the rise of petroleum and natural gas extraction Qatar was able to build a differentiated education system. Important positions in the economy and in the education sector will still be staffed with professionals from around the world, the trend is declining because -up more and more well-educated young Qataris.
The University of Qatar in Doha, a northerly campus University, was opened in 1973. It emerged from the earlier Pedagogical University. The training follows the Anglo-Saxon patterns: in six colleges and a medical faculty may Bachelor's and Master's degrees are acquired. A special feature of this university is that here both the Western legal system and Islamic law ( Sharia ) and the corresponding Islamic studies can be operated in parallel. With about 73 % of the 7,660 students in the winter semester 2005/ 06 the University had a remarkably high proportion of women. In addition, six well-known foreign universities (eg Carnegie Mellon ) smaller " offshoot " set up on site. Especially here there is a lively exchange of students, post- graduate and faculty, so that the once insignificant and remote Doha has long been classified in locations with international scientific visibility.
The radiating in all Arab countries Al Jazeera sends out its main studios in Doha since 1996. Since March 2011, radiates from here and the transmitter of the Libyan opposition Libya TV his program.
Since 1998, the Qatar Masters, an international golf tournament, held on the grounds of the Doha Golf Club. In December 2006, the city hosted the 15th Asian Games. Specifically a 200- acre sports complex with stadiums, covered large hall, ice rink was built, etc. For this major international event. As a distinctive mark the Olympic torch shone in the 318 m high Aspire Tower. After a good impression of the Doha Asian Games is applied to host the 2016 Summer Olympics, but was not declared the official candidate of the International Olympic Committee. Similarly happened with the renewed bid for the Olympic Summer Games 2020: Qatar is too hot in summer and in the fall it will not fit in most team sports, because the national leagues are already underway. The Football World Cup 2022, however, will be held in Qatar in the summer and in the capital, Doha are six air-conditioned stadiums numerous games stattfinden.Vorlage: Future / In 5 years
2007 Qatar got the first time a Catholic church, " Our Lady of the Rosary " consecrated, which cost eleven to twelve million euros.
The Qatar National Museum opened in 1975 in the former Royal Palace and the end of 2008 the strikingly located at the harbor entrance new Museum of Islamic Art was opened. Its collection of Islamic art is one of the most exquisite and with 45,000 square meters of exhibition space also one of the largest in the world. The idiosyncratic nested museum building was designed by the Chinese-American star architect IM Pei, the interior comes from the French designer Jean -Michel Wilmotte.
Development of the townscape
As in many major cities in the Persian Gulf and the skyline of Doha is increasingly dominated by high-rise buildings, most solitary, some with distinctive Arabic style citations. These rather low residential buildings are more and more built in the area. Presumably, the older, historically rather insignificant buildings will soon be gone through Neuverwertung of land. Greenery usually only the streets, small squares and traffic islands near the coast.
Very successful is the small parks accompanied eastern Corniche, which radiates about six kilometers along the semi-circular bay a touch of the model Nice. The north subsequent tourist area is marked by two special projects: the criss-crossed by canals and bays villas landscape " West Bay Complex " and specially designed for the bulk cargo of 30,000 residents just off the coast luxury island The Pearl. Another, much larger development projects ( today) outside Doha's north along the coast is the Urbanisations Lusail City project, planned to hold 200,000 people. This complex and ambitious projects will greatly change the image of Doha settlement to the east and north: from a desert town on the edge of the lake a lively lagoon city, the sea and all its possibilities is facing.
To the other, to give an urban direction until then quite haphazard expansion inside Doha, it has set in the years from 2000 onwards an urban master plan. Core of the development area is a multi-purpose center with 129,000 square meters of city shopping areas, on a large hotel, four office and residential towers and 2,500 parking spaces. You need an open sales and entertainment area with department stores and brand outlet stores as well as restaurants, cinemas, ice rink, bowling alleys, etc. will come. The architects were commissioned to any one in particular " friendly shopping " Souk construction. This will be achieved with special roof and wall constructions and continuous arcades, which keep the burning sun of the streets as possible.
According to the National Development Plan for 2030 Doha Qatar will have a subway. At the Green Line at 16.6 km of double tunnel and 6 stations five years to be built, 50 % of which goes as € 945 million contract to Porr AG, contract signing is scheduled for mid- June 2013. In Qatar, to be held in 2022, the football World Cup.
Unlike many almost absolute ruler of the Gulf emirates of the Emir of Qatar has given up some of his political power and introduced local self-government. This principle has already been introduced in Kuwait, the decision-making processes are usually longer. On 1 April 2007, the 29 -member City Council of Doha was elected. To select a total of 125 candidates were lined up, among them three women. The turnout was 51.1 % compared to 31 % in 2003.
Although Qatar still sees no early end to the oil and gas extraction before it, you're already anxious to leave private and public investment to flow to other economic sectors. Doha is expected to develop as a sport, leisure, financial and educational center, so that there is, however, with the neighboring Dubai and some with Abu Dhabi in fierce competition.
The Free Trade Zone Qatar Financial Centre ( QFC ), founded in 2005 aims to create an environment for international standards of regulation in the financial sector. Similarly, Qatar is striving to establish strategic partnerships with European stock exchanges to introduce the hitherto insignificant regional stock exchange in the global markets. Even the medical business and the significant health tourism in the Middle East will be addressed, by 2012 will open three new medical centers and specialty hospitals. Tourism is already in full development in Doha: 13,000 to more than double the 6084 Hotel Room ( 2008), by 2010. The occupancy rate of the hotels is (2008 ) 69 % could be greater, this one wants to, inter alia, achieved through the construction of a large conference and exhibition center. The Doha Convention Center Tower will be the new city crown in a 500 -meter-high skyscraper. It was originally planned to be finished in 2012, but since the summer of 2009, the construction work to rest for an indefinite duration.
Following the example of neighboring cities Dubai and Abu Dhabi is tested since 2009, whether the fast-growing city should handle the increased volume of traffic with the help of a rail- based mass transit system (Doha Metro).
UN Climate Change Conference 2012
According to World Bank statistics, the oil - Qatar is currently the country with the world's highest CO2 emissions per capita. Nevertheless found UN Climate Change Conference 2012 in the capital Doha instead. The organization of the conference in the country with the world's highest CO2 emissions per capita is seen variously as failure of global climate policy under the Emissions Gap Report 2012 of the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP.
- Museum of Islamic Art, Doha
- Arab Museum of Modern Art